sitemap FRANCISCO J. VARELA: 1946-2001
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Observer Web
Observer Web

  Francisco J. Varela
1946 - 2001

This Focus File is an archival collection of materials on Francisco Varela's life and career.

Francisco J. Varela was born in Chile on September 7, 1946. He died at the age of 54 in Paris on May 28, 2001. His life and work are well-summarized in an obituary written by his collaborator Evan Thompson.

Varela initially achieved international recognition in the 1970's as Humberto Maturana's colleague and co-creator of the concept of autopoiesis. Throughout the remainder of his career Varela explored issues and concepts within, and extending beyond, autopoietic theory. His 1979 Principles of Biological Autonomy ranks alongside Autopoiesis and Cognition as a central text on the subject of the biology of cognition / autopoietic theory. Many of this theory's important points receive their most detailed exposition in his writings. Beyond this, he augmented the basic theories with exploration and extension of relevant logic (the calculus of indications) and novel analytical constructs (e.g., complementarity; the star operator).

His 1991 Embodied Mind laid the groundwork for an enactive cognitive science intended to overcome the dilemmas plaguing Western science's approach to the phenomenon of mind. In his final decade, he focused much of his energy on consciousness studies and the new field he had labeled neurophenomenology.

His contributions to our knowledge are already remarkable for their originality, number, and significance. As time goes on, the perceived noteworthiness of his work will no doubt increase, as will a belated appreciation of how much his death has cost us all.

P.S.: This editor owes multiple debts of gratitude to Professor Varela - most especially for his prompting me to establish the Internet resources that evolved into the Observer Web. Therefore, the many people worldwide who have thanked me for these efforts also owe Francisco a debt of gratitude.




"If everybody would agree that their current reality is A reality, and that what we essentially share is our capacity for constructing a reality, then perhaps we could all agree on a meta-agreement for computing a reality that would mean survival and dignity for everyone on the planet, rather than each group being sold on a particular way of doing things."

Francisco Varela, quoted on the Global Vision Website.


 Varela's Personal Contributions to Autopoietic Theory

Francisco's best known contribution to autopoietic theory was his collaboration with Humberto Maturana from the late 1960's into the early 1970's. It was during this period that the biology of cognition was formally elaborated and the core concept of 'autopoiesis' was created. From the mid-1970's onward, Francisco continued to explore and elaborate this novel theory on his own and in his own way. Below is a list of his concepts and constructs which specifically relate to the biology of cognition / autopoietic theory.



  • operational versus symbolic explanations

  • admissibility for symbolic explanations

  • autonomy (as a formal construct)

  • analytic versus synthetic explanatory paradigms

  • categorization of system characterizations and representations with respect to the dichotomy between autonomous and non-autonomous systems

  • criteria of distinction (for an observer or observer-community)

  • the re-entry operator (added to Spencer Brown's calculus of indications)

  • extended calculus of indications (ECI)

  • organizational closure

  • interactional closure

  • The Closure Thesis

  • cognitive point of view


  • behavioral versus recursive cognitive points of view

  • complementarity

  • symmetry / asymmetry in complementary pairs

  • application of eigenbehaviors to model autonomous systems

  • enaction

  • enactive cognitive science

  • the only attempt to categorize autopoietic theory with respect to traditional epistemological taxonomies

  • in-formation

  • materiality versus nonmateriality in explanation

  • nomic relations invoked in explanations

  • observer-community

  • representationist programme (label for the position that mind mirrors a pre-given world)

  • star operator




"...[T]he last 15 years have witnessed the ascent of an alternative view, that of embodied or enactive cognition. This new wave arose because the computationalist doctrine failed to account even for the most elementary coping with the world: walking, perceiving object in a natural setting, imagination. Slowly the cards turned into considering that the basis of mind is the body in coupled action, that is, the sensory-motor circuits establish the organism as viable in situated contexts. From this perspective the brain appears as a dynamical process (and not a syntactic one) of real time variables with a rich self-organizing capacity (and not a representational machinery). So in this sense the mind is not in the head since it is roots in the body as a whole and also in the extended environment where the organism finds itself."

- Francisco Varela, Cosmos Web Forum letter 12e (1998?)



 An Overview of Varela's Career



Harvard University 1968-1970: Ph.D. in Biology
Thesis: Insect Retinas: Information processing in the compound eye

University of Chile 1965-1967: M.Sc. (Licenciatura) in Biology

Catholic University of Chile 1964-1966: School of Medicine

German Lyceum, Santiago, Chile 1951-1963.



Director of Research (DR1), CNRS

Guest Professor, Zurich Polytechnical Institut (ETH)

Program Director, College Internationale de Philosophie, Paris

Professeur Associé, Institut des Neurosciences, CNRS-Université de Paris VI

Fondation de France Professor of Cognitive Science and Epistemology, CREA, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris.

Visiting Senior Researcher, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt, Germany.

Professor of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Research Associate Professor, Brain Research Laboratories, New York University Medical School, New York, USA.

Assistant Professor, University of Colorado Medical School, Denver, Colorado.

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Teaching Fellow, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass, USA.

Teaching Fellow, School of Medicine, Catholic University, Santiago, Chile.



  • Presidential Medal of Italy for Contributions to Science and Culture
  • Interamerican Science Prize "Manuel Noriega" (O.A.S.) for Biological Sciences for 1986
  • Alexander von Humboldt Fellow - 1984
  • John S. Guggenheim Fellow -1983
  • Director, Chilean Society for Biological Research - 1981-1984
  • Alfred P.Sloan Foundation Award in the Neurosciences -1976-1978
  • Fulbright Travel Fellow - 1968-1970
  • Paul Mazur Fellowship for Graduate Study, Harvard University 1968-1970.



  • Revue Internationale de Systemique
  • Biology Forum
  • La Nuova Critica
  • Cybernetics and Human Knowing
  • Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (Stanford)
  • Advances in Consciousness Research
  • Artificial Life
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies.



  • The Lindisfarne Association, New York.
  • Centri di Studi Epistemologicie Cognitivi, Provincia di Perugia, Italia.
  • Fondazione Sigma Tau, Roma.
  • Centro di Stidu Semoitici e Cognitivie, Universitá di San Marino.
  • Friedensuniversität (Berlin).
  • Conseil Scientifique Réseau Cogniseine.
  • Vice-president, Institut pour les Sciences de la Complexité (Paris).
  • Mind and Life Institute, USA.
  • Center for the Study of Consciousness, University of Arizona.
  • SONY Computer Science Laboratory, Tokyo



  • Royal Dutch Shell Corporation, London
  • Rousel-UCLAF, Paris
  • Global Learning Project, United Nations University
  • Global Business Network, Berkeley
  • Business Design Associates, Berkeley



  • General Biology, Harvard University 1968-1970.
  • Introduction to Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Chile, 1970-1973.
  • Histology and Cell Biology, University of Colorado Medical School, 1974-1978.
  • Research Seminar in Neurosciences, University of Colorado Medical School,1975-1978.
  • Neurobiology, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Chile, 1980-1985.
  • Advanced Topics in Neuroscience, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Chile, 1980-1985.
  • U.E.R. Physiologie, University P.etM.Curie (Paris VI), 2e cycle,1986-1987.
  • Cognitive Science and Epistemology, CREA, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 1986-2001.


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"I hope I have seduced the reader to consider that we have in front of us the possibility of an open-ended quest for resonant passages between human experience and cognitive science. The price however is to take first-person accounts seriously as valid domain of phenomena. And beyond that, to build a sustained tradition of phenomenological examination that is almost entirely nonexistent today in our western science and culture at large."

Francisco Varela, Neurophenomenology : A methodological remedy for the hard problem, Journal of Consciousness Studies, "Special Issues on the Hard Problems", J.Shear (Ed.), June 1996.


Francisco Varela's Publications and other Documentary Products


Francisco's written output was as voluminous as it was intriguing. Ranging from biology to Buddhism, his publications are uniformly substantive and significant. The bibliographic listings below are adapted from the publications list posted on his personal Web page. These listings were current as of July 2000 - approximately 10 months prior to his death.






Varela,F. and K.R.Porter (1969) The fine structure of the visual system of the honeybee. I. The retina, J.Ultrastruct.Res. 29:236-258.



Varela,F. and H.Maturana (1970), Time courses of excitation and inhibition in the vertebrate retina, Exp.Neurol. 26:53-59.

Varela,F. (1970), The fine structure of the visual system of the honeybee.II. The lamina J.Ultrastruct.Res 31:178-194.

Varela,F. and W.Wiitanen (1970). Optics in the compound eye of the honeybee, J.Gen.Physiol., 55:336-358.



Wiitanen,W. and F.Varela (1971) Analysis of the organization and overlap of visual fields in the compound eye of the honeybee, J.Gen.Physiol. 57:303-325.

Varela,F. (1971) Self-consciousness: Adaptation or epiphenomenon? Studium Generale 24:426-439.

Moran, D. and F.Varela (1971) Microtubules and sensory transduction Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 68:757-760.

Varela,F. (1971) The vertebrate and the compound eye in evolutionary perspective, Vision Res. (Suppl.) , 11:201-210.



Maturana,H. , F.Varela, and S.Frenk (1972) Size constancy and the problem of perceptual spaces Cognition 1:97-104.



Varela,F. and H.Maturana (1973) Mechanism and biological explanation Phil.Sci. 39:378-382.



Varela,F., H.Maturana and R.Uribe (1974) Autopoiesis: The organization of living systems, its characterizationand a model, Biosystems 5:187-196.

  • Reprinted in: Cybernetics Forum 10:7-14,1982.

  • German translation in: Erkennen: Die Organisation und Verkörperung von Wirklichkeit, Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 1982, pp.157-167.

  • Italian translation in:La Nuova Critica, No 64, 1982, pp.5-21.



Moran,D., J.Rowley, and F.Varela (1975) Ultrastructure of the grasshopper femoral chordotonal organ Cell Tiss.Res . 16:445-457.

Varela,F. (1975) A calculus for self-reference Int.J.Gen.Systems 2:5-24.



Moran,D., J.Rowley, S.Zill, and F.Varela (1976) The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor J.Cell Biol. 71 :832-847.

Varela, F. (1976) Not one, not two, CoEvolution Quarterly ,No. 12, pp.62-67.



Moran,D., F.Varela, and J.Rowley (1977) Evidence for the active role of sensory cilia in mechanotransduction, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA, 74: 793-797.

Varela,F. and J.Goguen (1977) The arithmetic of closure in: R.Trappl (Ed.),Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vol. 3, Wiley Hemisphere, New York, pp. 48-63.

  • Reprinted in: J.Cybernetics , 8:291-324, 1978.

Varela,F. (1977) On being autonomous: The lessons of natural history for systems theory in: G.Klir (Ed.), Applied Systems Research , Plenum Press, New York, pp.77-85.

Varela,F. J.Rowley, and D.Moran (1977) The control of ciliary movements: An application of the cusp catastrophe J. Theoret.Biol. 65:531-553.

Zeiger, E., W.Moody, P.Hepler, and F.Varela (1977) Photoreceptor-like responses in stomatal guard cells Nature 270:270-271.

Varela,F. (1977) The nervous system as a closed network Brain Theory Newsletter 2:66-67.



Vaz, N. and F.Varela (1978) Self and non-sense: An organism- centered approach to immunology Medical Hypothesis 4:231-267.

  • Japanese translation: Gendai-Shiso, Vol.12, pp.166-188, 1984.



Goguen,J. and F.Varela (1979) Systems and distinctions: Duality and complementarity Int.J.Gen.Systems 5:31-43.

Varela,F. (1979) The extended calculus of indications interpreted as a three-valued logic Notre Dame J.Formal Logic 20:141-146.



Kauffman,L. and F.Varela (1980) Form dynamics J.Soc.Biol.Struct. 3:171-206.

Varela,F. (1980) Describing the logic of the living in: M.Zeleny (Ed.), Autopoeisis: A theory of the living organization, North-Holland. New York, pp.36-48.



Zill,S., D.Moran, and F.Varela (1981) The exoskeleton and insect propioception. Reflex effects of tibial campaniform sensilla in the american cockroach (Periplaneta americana)J.Exp.Biol. 94:43-57.

Varela,F., A.Toro. E.R.John, and E.Schwartz (1981) Perceptual framing and cortical alpha rhythms Neuropsychologia 19:675-686.

Varela, F. (1981) Autonomy and autopoiesis in: G.Roth and H.Schwegler (Eds.), Self-Organizing Systems: An interdiciplinary approach, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / New York, pp.14-24.

  • German translation in: S.J.Schmidt (Hgb.), Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruktivismus, Suhrkamp Tashenbuch Wissenschaft, Frankfurt, 1986, pp.119-133.

Varela, F. (1981) Der kreative Zirkel: Skizzen zur Naturgeschichte der Rückbezüglichkeit in: P. Watzlavick (Ed.), Die Erfundene Wirklichkeit: Beiträge zum Konstruktivismus, Piper Verlag, München, pp.294-309.

  • English translation in: The Invented Reality: Contributions to constructivism, W.Norton, New York, pp.309-325, 1984.

  • French translation in: L'Invention de la Realité,Eds du Seuil, Paris, 1988, pp.329-347.

  • Italian translation in: La Reltá Inevntata,Feltrinelli, Milan, 1989.

  • Spanish translation in: La Realidad Inventada,Ed.Gedisa, Buenos Aires, 1989.

  • Portuguese translation in: A Realidade Inventada, Edit.Psy, Campinas, 1994

Maturana, H. and F.Varela (1981) Size constancy and accommodation, Perception, 10:104-107.



Varela,F. (1982) Las álgebras de Boole y la noción de distinción Notas Soc.Matem.Chile , 1:39-53.

Varela, F. (1982) La corteza bien temperada: Análisis harmónico de campos receptivos visuales Arch.Biol.Med.Exp, 15:297-303.

Maturana, H. and F.Varela (1982) Color-opponent responses in the avian geniculate: A study in the quail (Coturnix corturnix japonica ) Brain Res, 247:227-241.



Varela,F. (1983) L'auto-organisation: De l'apparence au mécanisme in: P.Dumouchel and J.P.Dupuy (Eds.), L'Auto-Organisation: De la physique au politique, Eds. du Seuil, Paris, pp.147-165.

  • English translation in: La Nuova Critica, No.64,pp.31-51, 1982.

Varela,F., G.Marín, J.Letelier, and H.Maturana (1983) The neurophysiology of avian color vision Arch.Biol.Med.Exp., 16:291-303.



Soto-Andrade,J. and F.Varela (1984) Self-reference and fixed points Acta Applic.Matem . 2:1-19.

Varela,F. (1984) Das Gehen ist der Weg in: R.Kakuska (Ed.), Andere Wirklichkeiten , Dianus Trikont, München, pp.155-169.

Varela,F. (1984) Two principles for self-organization in: H.Ulrich and G.Probst (Eds.), Self-organization and Management of Social Systems , Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.25-33.

Letelier,J. and F.Varela (1984) Why the cortical magnification factor in Rhesus is isotropic Vision Res. 24:1091-1095.

Budnik,V., J.Mpodozis, F.Varela, and H.Maturana (1984) Regional specialization of the quail retina: Ganglion cell density and oil droplet distribution Neuroscien. Lett . 51:145-150.

Varela,F. (1984) Living ways of sense-making: A middle path for neuroscience in: P.Livingstone (Ed.), Order and Disorder: Proceedings of the Stanford International Symposium, Anma Libri, Stanford, pp.208-224.



Varela,F. (1985) Non-hebbian synaptic learning rules in: Cognitiva 85, CESTA, Paris, pp.751-754.

Varela,F. (1985) Complexity of the brain and autonomy of the living in: G.Bocchi and M.Ceruti (Eds.),La Sfida della Complessitá, Feltrinelli Milano, pp.141-157

Glasersfeld, E.v. and F.Varela (1985) Problems of knowledge and cognizing organisms Learning/Development (Lisbon), 2:17-25

  • Also in Methodologia Nº1 (1987), pp.29-47, with italian translation, pp. 67-84.



Varela,F. (1986) Sur l'emergence de l'ordre dans les reseaux neuronaux modulaires in: Jeux de Reseaux, Cahiers STS du CNRS, Nº9-10, Paris, pp.201-209.

Varela,F. (1986) Experimental epistemology: Past, present, and future Rev.Internat.Systemique 1:209-225.

  • Also in: Cahier CREA Nº9, Ecole Polytechnique,Paris, pp.107-123

  • Eidos (Canada), 1989.

  • Japanese translation: IBM User (Tokyo), Nº4, pp.16-21, 1987.

Varela,F. (1986) The future of perception and artificial intelligence in: H.Kawai and S.Yoshifuku (Eds.), Technology and Tradition in Transition , Proceedings of the Kyoto Intl. Symposium,Koyshakusa, Tokyo, pp.18-44. (in japanese)

  • German translation in: Lebende Systeme, Heidelberg(in press).

Varela,F. (1986) Steps to a cybernetics of autonomy in: R.Trappl (Ed.), Power and Autonomy: New approaches toward complex systems, Plenum Press, London-New York, pp.117-122.

Varela,F. (1986) Networks: Immune and otherwise. A letter to the editor Ann.Inst.Pasteur / Immunol. 137 D:127-129.

Varela,F. (1986) Laying down a path in walking: a biologist's look at a new biology Cybernetic 2: 6-15

  • Reprinted in: ReVision, 9:93-99; S.Grof (Ed.), Consciousness and Human Survival, SUNY Press, 1987; W.Thompson (ed.), Gaia: A way of knowing, Lindisfarne Press, Barrington, Mass.

  • German translation in: P.Fayerabend and Ch.Thomas,Leben mit den "Acht Todsünden der zivilisierten Menscheit"?, Verlag der Fachvereine, Zürich , 1987, pp.307-325 (with a comment by P.Fayerabend, pp. 325-330.

  • Also in: S.Grof (Ed.), Die Chance der Menscheit, Kösel, München, 1988, pp.155- 168.

  • French version in: 3e Millénaire, Nº12, Mars 89, pp.40-50.

  • Italian version in: W.Thompson (ed.), Ecologia e Autonomia, Feltrinelli, MIlan, 1989.



Varela,F. and S.Frenk (1987) The organ of form: Towards a biological theory of shape , J.Soc.Biol.Struct. , 10:73-83.

Varela,F. (1987) Die Auto-Organisation im Hirn und kognitive Prozesse in G.Güntern (Hg.), Der Blinde Tanz der Lautlöse Musik: Die Auto-Organisation von Systemen, ISO-Stiftung, Brig, Switzerland, pp.71-93.

Varela,F. and W.Singer (1987) Neuronal dynamics in the visual cortico-thalamic pathway as revealed through binocular rivalry Exp.Brain Res. 66:10-20.

Varela, F.(1987) Les racines biologiques de la individualité in: Sur L'Individu, Colloque de Royaumont, Eds. du Seuil, pp. 88-95.

  • Portuguese translation: Individuo e Poder, Ediçiões 70, Lisboa, pp.105-113.

  • Spanish translation: Sobre el Individuo, Editorial Paidós, Barcelona, pp.111-119.

Rössler,J. and F.Varela (1987) Exact results for the average dynamics and correlation of non-linear neural networks Biol.Cybernetics 57:249-256.

Varela,F. (1987) The science and technology of cognition: Emergent directions, in: J.L.Roos (Ed.), Economics and Artificial Intelligence , 1st IFAC Intl.Symposium,Pergamon Press, Oxford/New York , pp.1-9.

  • Portuguese translation in: Ciencia e Cultura, 40:460-470.

Guiloff,G., H.Maturana, and F.Varela (1987) The cytoarquitecture of the avian ventral lateral geniculate, J.Comp.Neurol. 264: 509-526



Varela, F., (1988). Erkentniss und leben in: Lebende Systeme, F.Simmons (Ed.), Springer Verlag, New York-Heidelberg, pp.34-47, pp.95-108, pp.108-120.

Varela,F., A.Coutinho, B.Dupire, and N.Vaz (1988) Cognitive networks: Immune, neural, and otherwise in: A.Perelson (Ed.), Theoretical Immunology, Part II , (SFI Series on the Science of Complexity), Addison-Wesley, New Jersey, pp.359-375.

Varela,F. (1988) Une approache a l'etude de l'autonomie et de la complexité in: E.Schwartz (Ed.), La Révolution des Systèmes: Une introduction à l'Approche Systemique, Editions del Val, Fribourg, pp.253-269.

Varela,F., and J.Letelier (1988) Morphic resonance in silicon chips: An experimental test of the hypothesis of formative causation Skeptical Inquirer 12:298-300.

Maldonado,P., H.Maturana, and F.Varela, (1988) Frontal and lateral visual fields in bird's vision Brain Beh.Evol. 32: 57-63.

64] Varela,F. (1988) Structural coupling of simple cellular automata: On the origin of meaning in: E.Secarz, F.Celada, N.A.Mitchinson, and T.Tada, The Semiotics of Cellular Communication in the Immune System, NATO ASI Series, Vol. H23, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 151-161.

Varela,F. V.Sánchez-Leighton, and A.Coutinho, (1988), Adaptive startegies gleaned from immune networks: Viability theory and Classifier systems, in: B.Goodwin and P.Saunders (Eds.), Theoretical Biology: Epigenetic and Evolutionary Order (A Waddington Memorial Conference), Edinburgh University Press, pp.112-123.

Huetz,F., F.Jacquemart, C.Peña-Rossi, F.Varela, and A.Coutinho (1988). Auto-immunity: The moving boundaries between physiology and pathology J.Autoimmunity 1:507-518.



Gho,M. and F.Varela (1989) Quantitative assesment of the dependency of the visual perceptual frame on the cortical alpha rhythm J.Physiologie (Paris) 83:95-101

Stewart,J., F.Varela, and A.Coutinho (1989). The relationship between connectivity and tolerance as revealed by computer simulation of the immune network: some lessons for an understanding of autoimmunity, J.Autoimm. 2 (Supplement):15-23

Stewart,J. and F.Varela, (1989). Exploring the connectivity of the immune network, Immunol.Reviews 110, pp.37-61.

Varela,F. and A.Cohen (1989). Le corps evocateur: une relecture de l'immunité, Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse Nº40, Automne 1989, pp.193-213.

Lundqvist,I., A. Coutinho, F.Varela, and D.Holmberg (1989) Evidence for the functional dynamics in an antibody network Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci (USA) 86 :5074-5078

Varela,F. (1989). Über die Natur und die Natur des Erkentniss, in: H.-P.Dürr and W.Zimmerli (Eds.), Geist und Natur, Scherz Verlag, Munich, pp. 90-110.

  • also in: M.Peschl (Ed.), Formen des Konstruktivismus in Diskusion, WUV Universitäts Verlag, Wien, pp.88-108.

Varela,F. and A. Coutinho, (1989). Immune Networks: Getting on to the real thing, Res.Immunol. , 140:837-845

Luisi,L. and F.Varela (1989) Self-replicating micelles as a chemical version of a minimal autopoietic system , Origins of Life, 19:633-643.



Palacios,A. , C. Martinoya and S.Bloch, F.Varela, (1990) Color mixtures in the pigeon: A psychophysical determination in the longwave spectral range Vision Res. , 30:587-596.

Varela, F. (1990). On the conceptual skeleton of cognitive science, in: Beobachter, Wilhem Fink Verlag, München, pp.13-25.

Varela, F. (1990). Il corpo come macchina ontologica, in: M.Ceruti and L.Preta (Ed.), Cosa é la conoscenza?, Laterza, Roma pp.43-53.

Varela,F.and J.Stewart, (1990). Dynamics of a class of immune networks. I. Global stability of idiotype interactions J.theoretBiol. 144:93-101

Stewart,J. and Varela,F (1990). Dynamics of a class of immune networks. II. Oscillations of the humoral and cellular compartments J.theoretBiol. 144:103-115

Coutinho,A., A.Andersson, A.Sunsblad, I.Lundkvist, D.Holmberg, M.Arala-Chaves, J.Stewart, and F.Varela (1990). Immune network dynamics in: A.Osterhaus and F.Uytdehaag (Eds.) Idiotype Networks in Biology and Medicine, Elsevier Science Amsterdam-New York, pp. 59-63.

Varela,F. and E. Thompson (1990). Color vision: A case study for the foundations of cognitive science Revue de Synthèse 61:129-138

  • French: Le Cerceau Pluriel, G.Thill, B.Feltz, and D.Lambert (Eds.), Editions Ciaco, Brussels, pp.15-26

Palacios,A., V.Bonnardel, and F.Varela (1990). L'"autoshaping": méthode psychophysique pour la discrimination chromaitque chez les oiseaux Compt.Rend.Acad.Sci.(Paris) 311:213-218

Varela,F. (1990) Learning principles gleaned from biological networks , in: S. Schmidt (ed.), Gedächtnis: Probleme und Perspektiven der interdisciplinären Forschung, pp.159-169, Suhrkampf, Frankfurt

Soto-Andrade, J. and F.Varela (1990). On mental rotations and cortical activity patterns: A linear representation is still wanted Biological Cybernetics , 64:221-223.

Palacios,A., H.Gionni, and F.Varela (1990). Chromatic discrimination in pigeons after thalamic lesions of nuclei Rotundis (Rt) and geniculatus lateralis ventralis (GLv): A psychophysical study Compte Rendus Acad.Sci (Paris). Ser.III 312:113-116.

Varela,F. and V.Sanchez-Leighton (1990). On observing emergent properties and their composition, Brain Beh. Science (Continuing Commentary) 13:401-402

Varela, F. (1990). Between Turing and quantum mechanics there is a body to be found Beh.Brain Sci. (Commentary) 13: 687-688.



Varela, F., (1991). Organism: A meshwork of selfless selves in: Tauber (ed.), Organism and the Origin of Self, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp.79-107

  • also in: Rev.Europ.Sciences Soc., 29:173-198, 1991.

F.Varela and Coutinho A. (1991). Second generation immune networks, Immunol Today 12:159-167

V.Bonnardel, C.Martinoya, and F.Varela (1991). Measuring the contrast sensitivity to periodic spectral modulations in man Compte Rendus Acad.Sci (Paris). Ser.III 312:695-700

Varela,F. (1990). Chaos as self-renewal, in: Chaos , T.Teunners (ed.), Erasmus University, Rotterdam, pp. 25-37.

Varela,F.,A.Anderssen, G.Dietrich, A.Sundblad, D.Holmberg, M.Kazatchkine and A. Coutinho (1991) The population dynamics of natural antibodies in normal and autoimmune individuals Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. (USA) , 88: 5917-5921

Varela,F. (1991). Brain Time, Cognitive time, in: J.Montangero and A.Tryphon (Eds.), Psychologie Génétique et Sciences Cognitive,12th Piaget Symposium, Presses University Geneve, pp.195-209.

  • also in: Rev.Int.Psychoppathologie,Nº4, pp.435-450, 1991.

  • also in: J.Ogilvy (Ed.), Revisioning Philosophy, SUNY Press, New York, 1992, pp.97-111

  • also in: M.Cerutti (ed.), Evolutzione e Conoscenza: L'epistemologie genetica di Jean Piaget, P.L.Lubrina Editori, Bergamo, 1992, pp.75-89

  • also in: S.Kwinter and J.Cleary (Eds.), Incorporations, Zone Books, New York, pp.320-340, 1992

Dupuy,J.P. and F.Varela (1991). Creative circularities: Understanding origins, in: F.Varela and J.P.Dupuy (Eds.) Understanding Origins, Stanford University Intl.Symposium, Boston Studies Phil.Sci., Kluwer, Boston, pp. 1-27.

  • German: in P.Watzlavick and P.Krüger, Das Auge des Betrachters: Festschrift für Heinz von Foerster, Piper Verlag, München, pp.247-276

Varela,F. (1991) Whence the origin of perception? A cartography of current ideas in: F.Varela and J.P.Dupuy (Eds.) Understanding Origins: Contemporary Ideas on the Origin of Life, Mind and Society, Boston Studies Phil.Sci., Kluwer, Boston, pp.235-265

Varela, F., M.Anspach, and A.Coutinho (1991) Immuknowledge: Learning mechanisms of somatic individuation in: J.Brockman (Ed.), Doing Science, Prentice-Hall, New York, pp.237-257.

  • also in: W.I.Thompson (Ed.), Emergence: The science of becoming, Lindisfarne Press, 1991, pp. 68-86, 185-210.

  • also in: H.Gumbrecht and L.Pfeiffer (Eds.), Materialities of Communication, Stanford University Press, 1994, pp.273-285

  • German: in: K.Kratky, E.Bonet (Ed.), Systemtheorie und Reduktionismus, Verlag der OSD, 1989, pp.185-202.

  • German: in: P.L.Luisi (ed.), Treffpunkt Zukunft, Aktuell Verlag, Münchenm, 1991, pp.80-102.

  • also in: K.L.Pfeiffer and H.U.Gumbrecht (eds.), Paradoxien, Dissonanzen, Zusammenbrüche, Suhrkampf Verlag, Frankfurt, 1991, pp.727-746.

  • French: in: D.Andler (Ed.), Introduction aux Sciences Cognitives, , Gallimard, Paris, 1992, pp.489-509.

Bersini, H. and F.Varela (1991). Hints for adaptive problem solving gleaned from immune networks in: H.-P.Scwefel and R.Männer (Eds.), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Nº496, Springer Verlag, Berling, pp.343-354.

Bersini, H. and F.Varela (1991). The Immune recruitment mechanism: A selective evolutionary strategy in: R.K.Belew and L.S.Booker (Eds.), Genetic Algorthims, Proc.XIVth Int.Conference, Morgan Kauffman Publishers, San Mateo Ca., pp.520-526.

Bonnardel, V. and F.Varela (1991). A frequency view of color vision: Measuring the human sensitivity to square-wave spectral power distributions, Proc.Roy.Soc.Lond. B. 245:165-171

Varela,F. (1991). Structure and cognition in living systems in: A.Shibatani, N.Hokkyo, and Y.Sato (eds.), Structuralism and Biology, Yosioka Shoton, Kyoto, pp.266-274.

Gionnai,H. Palacios,A., and F.Varela (1991). Role of the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis (GLv) in the optokinetic reflex: a lesion study in the pigeon, Exp.Brain Res. 86:601-607

Stewart, J. and F.Varela (1991). Morphogenesis in shape space: Elementary meta-dynamics of immune networks J.Theoret.Biol. 153:477-498



Thompson,E., A.Palacios and F.Varela (1992). Ways of coloring: Comparative color vision as a case study in cognitive science Beh.Brain Scien. 15:1-45

Thompson,E., A.Palacios and F.Varela (1992). On the ways to color: Reply to comments to the above Beh.Brain Scien. 15: 60-75

Bourgine,P. and F.Varela (1992). Towards a practice of autonomy in: P. Bourgine and F. Varela (Eds.) Toward a Practice of Autonomous Systems , MIT press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, 1992, pp.ix-xviii.

Varela, F. (1992). Penser l'IA: le point de vue d'un biologiste, in: P.Chambat and P.Levy (Eds.), Les Nouveaux Outils du Savoir, Editions Descartes, Paris, 1992, pp. 87-104.

Palacios, A. and F.Varela, (1992). Color mixing in the pigeon. II. A psychophysical determination in the middle and short, and near-UV spectral range Vis.Research 32:1947-1953

Varela, F. (1992). Das zweite Gehirn unseres Körpers, in: H.R.Fisher, A.Retzer, und J.Schweiter (Eds.), Das Ende der Grossen Entwürfe , Suhrkamp, Frankfort, pp. 109-117.



W.Stein and F.Varela (1993). Thinking about biology: An introductory essay, in: W.Stein and F.Varela (Eds.), Thinking About Biology: An introduction to Theoretical Biology , SFI Series on Complexity, Addision-Wesley, NJ, pp.1-11.

Varela,F., A.Coutinho, and J.Stewart (1993). What is the immune network for?, in: W.Stein and F.Varela (Eds.), Thinking About Biology: An introduction to Theoretical Biology, SFI Series on Complexity, Addision-Wesley, NJ, pp. 213-228.

Varela, F. (1993). "Le cerveau et la pensée", in: Georges Canguilhem: Philosophe et historien des sciences, Aubier, Paris, pp. 279-286

Varela,F. (1993). When is a map cognitive?, in: E.Lazslo and I.Masulli (Eds.) (ed.), The Evolution of Cognitive Maps, Gordon & Breach, London, pp. 99-104.

Neuenschwander, S. and F.Varela (1993). Visually triggered neuronal oscillations in birds: an autocorrelation study of tectal activity Europ.J.Neuroscien. 5:870-881

  • Also in: K.Pribram (Ed.), Origins: Brain and Self-Organization, LEA, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 495-535.

Varela, F. (1993). Le Tout, plus que la somme des parties (Editorial) Sciences et Vie: Les secrets du vivant , Nº184, Sept. 1993, p.1

Calenbuhr,V., Bersini.H., F.Varela, and J.Stewart (1993). The impact of the structure of the connectivity matrix on the dynamics of a simple model for the immune network, in: E.Mosekilde (Ed.), Computer Simulation in Biology, Ecology and Medicine, Sooc.Computer Simulation, New York, pp. 31-45.

Neuenschwander,S., Martiniere, J. Renault, B. and , Varela, F. (1993). A dynamical analysis of oscillatory responses in the optic tectum, Cognitive Brain Res, 1:175-181.

Varela,F., A.Palacios and T.Goldsmith (1993). Color vision of Birds

in: H.J.Bischoff (Ed.), Bird Vision and Cognition , MIT Press, Cambridge, pp.77-99.

Dietrich, G., Varela, F. and Kazatchkhine,M. (1993). Manipulating the human immune network with IgG, Europ.J.Immunol. 23:2945-2950



Vuong,P., J.Stewart, A.Coutinho and F.Varela, (1994). The shadow of a doubt: The etchis of AIDS vaccination programs Etique Nº10, pp.28-38

Varela,F. (1994). Le bonheur comme savoir-faire R.P.Droit (ed.), Oú est le bonheur?, Editions le Monde, Paris, pp.306-327

Varela,F. (1994). A cognitive view of the immune system, World Futures 42:31-40

Varela, F. (1994). Sciences cognitives et psychanalyse: Questiones ouvertes, in: I.Billard (Ed.), Somatisation: Psychanalyse et Sciences du vivant,Editions Eschel, Paris, 1994.

  • also in: J.Psychanal.Enfant, 14:313-326, 1993.

Varela, F. (1994) On defining life in: G. Fleischaker and M. Colonna (ed.), Self-reproduction of Supramolecular Structures,, NATO ASI Series, Plenum Press, 1994, pp.23-33.

Bersini, H. and Varela, F. (1994). Learning and the Immune network: Reinforcement, recruitment and their applications in: G.Patton (Ed.), Biologically Inspired Computation , Chapman and Hill, London, pp.166-192.

Stewart,J. and F.Varela (1994). Cognition without neurons: Adaptation, learning and memory in the immune system in: E.Benabou (Ed.), Intelligence Collective , Hermes, Paris, pp.

V.Detours, H.Bersini, J.Stewart and F. Varela (1994). Development of idiotypic network in shape space, J.theoret.Biol. 170 :401-414.



Varela, F. (1995). The re-enchantment of the concrete in: L.Steels and R.Brooks (Eds.), The Artificial Life route to Artificial Intelligence: Building Embodied, Situated Agents , Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., New Haven, pp.11-20.

Varela, F. (1995). Resonant Cell Assemblies: A new approach to cognitive functions and neuronal synchrony, Biol.Research 28:81-95.

Deffuant, T.Fuchs, E.Monneret, , P.Bourgine, and F.Varela (1996). Semi-algebraic organisms: the morphodynamical network perspective, Artificial Life 2:157-179

Calenbuhr, V., H.Bersini, J.Stewart, and F.Varela (1995). Natural tolerance in a small immune network J.theoret.Biol. 177:199-213



Neuenschwander, S., A.Engel, P.König, W.Singer and F.Varela (1996). Synchronization of neuronal responses in the optic tectum of awake pigeons, Visual Neurosci, 13: 575-584.

Varela, F. (1996). Approches de l'intentionalité: de l'individu aux groupes sociaux in: J.Mallet (Ed.), L'Organisation Apprenant: L'Action productrice du sens Université de Provence, Aix-en-Provence, pp.33-45.

Müller,J., Neuenschwander, S., Pezard,L. Renault,B., Martinerie, J., and Varela, F. (1996). Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals of synchronous local field potentials Physica D 94: 65-91.

Pezard,L., J.-L.Nandrino, B.Renault, F.El-Massioui, J.-F.Allilaire, J.Müller, F.J.Varela, and J.Martinerie (1996). Depression as a dynamical disease Biological Psychiatry 39:991-999

Pezard,L. Martinerie, J., Müller,J. Varela, F. and B.Renault, Multichannel measures of average and localized entropy Physica D , 96:344-354 (1996).

Varela, F. (1996). Neurophenomenology: A Methodological remedy to the hard problem,, J.Consc.Studies 3:330-350.

  • also in: J.Shear (Ed.), Explaining Consciousness: The Hard Problem of Consciousness, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997, pp. 337-358.

  • also in: Pluriverso (Milan), 3:16-40 (1997) (italian).

Varela, F. (1996). The early days of autopoiesis: Heinz and Chile, Systems Research 13:407-417.

Luisi,L. Lazcano,A. and Varela,F. (1996). Autopoiesis: the very idea, in: Defining Life: The central problem in theoretical biology, M.Rizzotti (Ed.), Universitá de Padova, Padova, pp.146-167.

M.Le Van Quyen, H.Schuster, and F.Varela (1996). Fast rhythms from slow neuronal oscillators, Int.J.Bifurcation Chaos, 6: 1807-1816.

V. Calenbuhr, F.J. Varela and H. Bersini (1996). Natural tolerance as a function of network connectivity, Int.J.Bifurcation Chaos, 6: 1691-1702



J.P.Lachaux, L.Pezard, Ch.Pelt, L.Garneiro, B.Renault, F.Varela and J.Martinerie (1997). Spatial extension of brain activity fools the single-channel reconstruction of EEG dynamics Human Brain Mapping 5:26-47.

Le Van Quyen, M., J.Martinerie, C. Adam, J-Ph.Lachaux, M.Baulac, B.Renault, and F.Varela (1997). Temporal patterns in human epileptic activity are modulated by perceptual discriminations Neuroreport 8: 1703-1710.

Pezard,L., Lachaud, J-P, J.-L.Nandrino, C.Adam, L.Garnero, B.Renault, F.J.Varela, and J.Martinerie (1997). Local and global entropy quantification in neuronal systems J.Technical Physics 38:319-322

Varela, F.J. (1997). The Body's Self, in: D.Goleman (Ed.), Health and Emotions, Shambhala, Boston, pp. 49-67.

Varela, F. (1997). Patterns of Life: Intertwining identity and cognition, Brain Cognition , 34:72-87.

Varela, F. (1997). Quíest-ce que la vie artificielle?, Pour la Science , No.240, Octobre, pp.10-12.

McMullin, B. and F.J.Varela (1997). Rediscovering computational autopoeisis, in: P.Husbands and I.Harvey (Eds.), Fourth European Confrence on Artificial Life, MIT Press/ Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA., pp. 38-48.

Varela, F. (1997). A science of consciousness as if experience mattered, in: S.Hameroff, A.Kazniak, and A.Scott (Eds.), Towards the Science of Consciousness: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, MIT Press, pp. 31-44.

Le Van Quyen, M., J.Martinerie, C. Adam, H.Schuster, and F.Varela (1997). Unstable periodic orbits in human epileptic acivity, Physica E 56: 3401-3411.

Varela, F. (1997). The Naturalization of Phenomenology as the Transcendence of Nature:

Searching for generative mutual constraints Alter : Revue de Phénoménologie Nº 5: pp. 355-385. (Paris)

Varela, F. (1997). Metaphor to mechanism: Natural to disciplined, J.Consc.Studies, 4:344-346.



Varela, F. (1998). The neurodynamics of retention, in: J.L.Petit (Ed.), Les Neurosciences et la Philosophie de l'Action,J. Vrin, Paris, pp.231-243.

Varela, F. (1998). Construction du réel et affect: expérience du sujet, performances et narrations In: E.Goldbeter-Merinfeld (Ed.), Constructivisme et constructionisme social, De Boeack Université, Brussels, pp.277-282.

Palacios, A., F.J.Varela, R. Srivastava, and T.Goldsmith (1998). Spectral sensitivity of cones of Carassius auratus Vision Res. 38:2135-2146.

M. LeVan Quyen, C. Adam, M. Baulac, J. Martinerie and F. J. Varela, (1998). Non-linear Interdependences of EEG Signals during intracranial ictal activities Brain Research 792:24-40

J.Martinerie, C.Adam, M.Le van Quyen, M.Baulac, B.Renault and F. J. Varela (1998). Epileptic crisis can be anticipated by non-linear analysis, Nature Medicine 4:1173-1176

L.Pezard, J.Martinerie, F.J.Varela, F.Bouchet, D.Guez, Ch.Derousné and B.Renault (1998). Entropy maps characterize drug effects on brain dynamics in Alzheimer's disease Neuroscience Lett. 253:5-8.



F.J.Varela and J.Shear (1999). First-person methodologies: why, when and how, J.Consc.Studies 6(2-3):1-14 1999.

F.J.Varela (1999). Present-time consciousness, J.Consc.Studies 6(2-3):111-140.

E.Rodriguez, N.George, J.P. Lachaux, J.Martinerie, B.Renault and F.Varela (1999). Perception's shadow:Long-distance synchronization in the human brain Nature 397:340-343.

F.Varela and P.Vermersch (1999). Fully embodying the personal level, Beh.Brain Sci. ( Commentary ) 21:777-778

Le van Quyen, M., Martinerie. J., Adam, C., Varela F. (1999). Nonlinear spatio-temporal interdependences of interictal intracranial EEG recordings from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: Localizing epileptogenic foci, Physica D 127:250-266

Varela, F. (1999). The specious present: The neurophenomenology of time consciousness in: J.Petitot, F.J. Varela, B.Pachoud and J.M.Roy (Eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology, Stanford University Press, pp. 266-314.

  • Condensed version: Present-time consciousness, J.Consc. Studies 6 (2-3):111-140, (1999).

Varela, F. (1999). Steps to a science of Interbeing: Unfolding the Dharma implicit in modern Cognitive Science In: S.Bachelor, G.Claxton and G.Watson (eds.), The Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Science and Our Day to Day Lives, Rider/Random House, pp.71-89.

  • Revised version in: Envisioning Knowledge , B.Wiens (Ed.), Dumont, Cologne, 1999.

  • French translation: Theorie, Littérature, Enseignement, No.17, pp.7-21, 1999.

  • Italian translation: Argonauti de la Noosphera, Centro Piu Manzu (in press).

Varela, F. (1999). Introduction: Why dynamics? Because it tackles real issues In: W.Tscahcher and J.P.Dauwalder (Eds.), Dynamics, Synergetics Autonomous Agents , World Scientific, Singapore, pp.xiii-xiv.

F.Varela (1999). A dimly perceived horizon: The complex meeting ground between lived and physical time Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 879:143-154.

M.Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, M.Baulac, and F.Varela (1999). Anticipation of epileptic seizures in real time by a nonlinear similarity measure in human intracortical recordings, Neuroreport 10:2149-2155

F.Varela (1999). Dasein's Brain: Phenomenology meets Cognitive Science in: D.Aerts (Ed.), Einstein Meets Magritte: The White Book, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 185-197.

F.Varela (1999). "Cognition et Sciences cognitives", in: D.Lecourt (Ed.), Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences, Presses Universitaires de France, pp.185-191.

C.Adam , M.Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, S.Clemenceau, M.Baulac, B. Renault and F.Varela (1999). Interactions entre réseau épileptique et fonctionnement cérébral: approche par analyse non-lineaire de l'EEG intracrânien Revue Neurologique , 155:489-494.

J.P. Lachaux, E.Rodriguez, J.Martinerie and F.Varela (1999). Measuring phase-synchrony in brain signals Human Brain Map. , 8: 194-208.

J.M.Roy, J.Petitot, B.Pachoud and , F.J. Varela, (1999). Beyond the gap. An introduction to naturalizing phenomenology in: J.Petitot, F.J. Varela, B.Pachoud and J.M.Roy (Eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology , Stanford University Press, pp.1-83.

Thompson, E. and F.Varela (1999). Autopoiesis and Lifelines: The importance of origins, Beh.Brain Sciences 22:909-910.

M.Le van Quyen J.Martinerie and F.Varela (1999). Spatio-temporal dynamics of epileptopgenic networks In: Peter Grassberger and Klaus Lehnertz (Eds.), Chaos in the Brain? , pp. 86-96, World Scientific, 1999.

M. Baulac, M.Le van Quyen J.Martinerie, S.Cleme,ceau, C.Adam and F.Varela (1999). Pre-ictal changes of the EGG dynamics in epileptic patients: clinical and neurobiological implications In: Peter Grassberger and Klaus Lehnertz (Eds.), Chaos in the Brain? , pp.77-86, World Scientific, 1999.



Varela, F. (2000). Synchronisation neuronal et fonctions cognitives, In: B.Feltz, M. Crommelinck, and Ph.Goujon (Eds.) , Auto-organisation et Emergence dans les sciences de la vie, Ousia, Bruxelles, pp.310-330.

M.Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, C.Adam , S.Clemenceau, M.Baulac, and F.Varela(2000). Non-linear analysis of long-term EEG spatio-temporal dynamics in human tempoal lobe epilepsy, Europ.J.Neuroscien..

J.P. Lachaux, E.Rodriguez, J.Martinerie, C.Adam, D.Hasboun and F.Varela (2000). Gamma-band activity in human intracortical recordings triggered by cognitive tasks, Europ.J.Neuroscience, 12:1-15.

F.Varela and N.Depraz, At the source of time: Valance and the constitutional dynamics of affect, in : Ipseity and Alterity, Arob@se: An electronic journal,


(as of July 2000)



F.J.Varela (1999). Pour une phénoménologie de la sunyata. I. in: N.Depraz and J.F.Marquet (Eds.), Gnosis, Metaphysique, Phénoménologie, Eds. du Cerf, Paris.

Varela, F., (2000). Why the proper study of mind implies the transcendence of nature in J.Andresen (Ed.), Religion in Mind: Cognitive Science and Religious Experience, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

N.Depraz, F.Varela and P.Vermersch (1999). The gesture of awareness: An acount of its structural dynamics in: M.Velmans (Ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness,Benjamin Publishers, Amsterdam.

  • Also in: R.Kühn und Michael Staudigl (Hg.), Epoché und Reduktion, Karl Alber Verlag.

  • Also in: Etudes Philosophiques

M.Le van Quyen J.Martinerie and F.Varela (1999). Spatio-temporal dynamics of epileptopgenic networks In: Peter Grassberger and Klaus Lehnertz (Eds.), Chaos in the Brain?, World Scientific, 1999.

F. Varela (1999). La réduction phénoménologique a l'épreuve de l'expérience: Réponse a F.-D. Sebbah dans: M.J. Durand-Richard (Ed.), Des lois de la pensée au constructivisme ,Editions EHSS, Paris.

Lachaux, JP, Rodriguez, E., M.Le Van Quyen, A Lutz, J.Martinerie and F.Varela Studying single-trials of phase-synchronous activity in the brain Int.J.Bifuct.Chaos

M.Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, C.Adam , S.Clemenceau, M.Baulac, and F.Varela

Non-linear analysis of long-term EEG spatio-temporal dynamics in human tempoal lobe epilepsy Europ.J.Neuroscien.

F.J.Varela (2000). Pour une phenomenologie de la sunyata. I., in: N.Depraz and J.F.Marquet (Eds.), Gnosis, Metaphysique, Phenomenologie, , Eds. du Cerf, Paris.

Varela, F., (2000). Why the proper study of mind implies the transcendence of nature,in J.Andresen (Ed.), Religion in Mind: Cognitive Science and Religious Experience, Cambridge University Press.

N.Depraz, F.Varela and P.Vermersch (2000). The gesture of awareness: An acount of its structural dynamics in: M.Velmans (Ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness, Benjamin Publishers, Amsterdam.

  • Also in: R.Kühn und Michael Staudigl (Hg.), Epoché und Reduktion, Karl Alber Verlag

  • Also in: Etudes Philosophiques

    F. Varela (2000). La rÈduction phÈnomÈnologique a l'Èpreuve de l'expérience: Réponse a F.-D. Sebbah, dans: M.J. Durand-Richard (Ed.), Des lois de la pensÈe au constructivisme, Editions EHSS, Paris.

    Lachaux, JP, Rodriguez, E., M.Le Van Quyen, A Lutz, J.Martinerie and F.Varela (2000). Studying single-trials of phase-synchronous activity in the brain, , Int.J.Bifuct.Chaos.

    Varela, F..Imagining: Embodiment, phenomenology, transformation. In: A. Wallace (Ed.), Breaking New Ground: Essays on Buddhism and Modern Science.

    Varela, F. (2000),Upwards and downwards causation in the brain: Case studies on the emergence and efficacy of consciousness, In: K.Yasue and M.Jibu (eds.), Towards a Science of Consciousness Tokyo '99, Benjamin Publishers, Amsterdam, 2000.

    (as of July 2000)



    J.P. Lachaux, E.Rodriguez, J.Martinerie, C.Adam, D.Hasboun and F.Varela, Gamma-band activity in human intracortical recordings triggered by cognitive tasks, Europ.J.Neuroscience

    F.Varela and N.Depraz At the source of time: Valance and the constitutional dynamics of affect in : Ipseity and Alterity, Arob@se: An electronic journal,

    E.Rodriguez, B. Jamel, J.P.Lachaux, A.Lutz, J.Martinerie, B.Renault and F.Varela, "She's got Bette Davis eyes": Multi-band brain synchrony during a complex visual task, Nature Neuroscien.

    M. Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, V.Navarro, P.Boon, M.DíHiv, F. Varela, and M.Baulac Non-invasive anticipation of epileptic seizures The Lancet

    Boidron, A., J.Martinerie and F.Varela Attentional shifts as a modulator of gamma activity: A study using long-lasting stimuli, J.Cog.Neurosci.

    Thompson, E. and F. Varela What are neural Correlates of Consciousness? A Neurophenomenological perspective Mind and Body

    Weber, A. and F.Varela, Life after Kant: Natural puposes and the autopoietic foundation of individuality, Phylosophy & Biology.

    E.Rodriguez, B. Jamel, J.P.Lachaux, A.Lutz, J.Martinerie, B.Renault and F.Varela, Multi-band brain synchrony during a complex visual task.

    M. Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, V.Navarro, P.Boon, M.D'Hiv, F. Varela, and M.Baulac, Anticipation of epileptic seizures from standard surface EEG.

    Boidron, A., J.Martinerie and F.Varela, Attentional shifts as a modulator of gamma activity: A study using long-lasting stimuli.

    F. Varela and Thompson, E., What are neural Correlates of Consciousness? A Neurophenomenological perspective.

    Weber, A. and F.Varela, Life after Kant: Natural puposes and the autopoietic foundation of individuality

    Cohen, A. and F. Varela, Facing up to the embarrasement: psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience , Actes Etats GÈneraux de la Psychoanalyse , Paris July 2000,


    BOOKS (Authored)




    Varela, F. Los Ojos de los Insectos, Editorial Alhambra, Madrid, 118 pp., 1974.

    H.Maturana and F.Varela Autopoiesis and Cognition: The realization of the living D.Reidel, Boston, 1980, 141 pp+xxv.

    • Spanish: De Máquinas y Seres Vivos: Una teoría sobre la organización biológica, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 1973, 121 pp. New revised edition with a Preface, 1995.

    • Italian: Autopoiese e Cognizione :La realizazione del vivente, Marsilio Editori, Venezia, 1985, 204 pp.

    • German in: H.Maturana, Erkennen: Die Organisation und Verkörperung von Wirklichkeit,

    • Ausgewählte Arbeiten zur biologischen Epistemologie, Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 1982., pp.170-234.

    • Japanese: Kokubun-Sha Publishers, Tokyo, 1991.

    • Portuguese: De Maquinas e Seres Vivos,, Intermedica, Sao Paulo, 1997

    Varela, F. Principles of Biological Autonomy Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, 1979, 306 pp.

    • French: Autonomie et Connaissance: Essai sur le Vivant, Eds. du Seuil, Paris, 1988.

    H.Maturana and F.Varela The Tree of Knowledge: A new look at the biological roots of human understanding, Shambhala/New Science Library, Boston, 1987.

    • Spanish : El Arbol del Conocimiento: Las bases biológicas del entendimiento humano,, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 1985; Editorial Debate, Madrid, 1988.

    • German : Der Baum der Erkenntnis, Scherz Verlag, München. 1987 ; paperback edition, Goldman Verlag, 1990.

    • Italian : L'Arbero della Conoscenza, Garzanti Editori, Milano,, 1987

    • Japanese : Asahi Press, Tokyo , 1987; Chikuma Shobo, Tokyo, 1997.

    • Danish : Kinskaben Trae, Forgest Ask, Copenhaguen, 1988

    • Dutch : De Boom der Kennis, Uitgeverij Contact, Amsterdam,1989.

    • Greek : To Lentro tes Gnoshs, Katoptro, Athens, 1992.

    • French: L'Arbre de la Connaissance, Addison-Wesley, France, Paris, 1994.

    • Portuguese : A Arbore do Conhecimiento, Editorial Psy, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1995.

    • Slovenian : Drevo Spoznanja , Studia Humanitatis, Ljubljana, 1998.

    • Vietnamese : 1999

    • Russian: Progress-Tradition, Moscow, 2000.

    F.Varela, Connaître:Les Sciences Cognitives , tendences et perspectivess Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1988.

    Deuxième edition: Invitation aux Sciences Cognitives, Seuil, Points Sciences, 1996.

    • Italian: Scienze e Tecnologia della Cognizioni, Hopeful Monster, Florence , 1987.

    • Spanish : Conocer: Las Ciencias Cognitivas, Grijalbo, Barcelona, 1990.

    • German : Kognitionwissenschaften-Kognitiontechnik, Surkampf, Frankfurt, 1990.

    • Portuguese: Conhecer, Instituto Piaget, Lisbon.

    F.Varela E.Thompson and E.Rosch, The Embodied Mind: Cognitive science and human experience, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991.

    • German: Der Mittlere Weg der Erkenntnis, Scherz, Munich, 1992

    • Italian: La via del mezzo de la conoscenza Feltrinelli, Milano, 1993.

    • French: L'Inscription Corporelle de l'Esprit, Seuil, Paris, 1993.

    • Spanish: De Cuerpo Presente: Las ciencias cognitivas y la experiencia humana , Gedisa, Barcelona, 1992.

    • Portuguese: Editora Piaget, Lisbon (in press).

    • Brazil: Editorial Artes Medicas, Sao Paulo (in press).

    • Japonese: Koishaku, Tokyo (in presss).

    • Korean: Hyunwoo Publishing Co., Seoul (in press).

    • Chinese: Shy Mau Publishing Co., Taiwan (in press).

    F.Varela, Un Know-how per l'ettica, The Italian Lectures 3, Editrice La Terza, Roma, 1992.

    • German: Ethisches Können, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt, 1994.

    • Portuguese: Sobre a Competencia Etica, Ediçòes 70, Lisboa, 1996.

    • French: Quel savoir pour l'étique? Action, sagesse et cognition, Editions La Découverte, Paris, 1996.

    • Spanish: Etica y Acción , Editorial Dolmen, Santiago, Chile, 1996.

    • English: Ethical Know-How, Stanford University Press, 1999.


    BOOKS (Forthcoming as of July 2000)



    E.Thompson and F.Varela

    Lived Body: Why the Mind is not in the Head, Harvard University Press

    N.Depraz, F.Varela and P.Vermersch, On Becoming Aware: Steps to a Phenomenological Pragmatics, Benjamin Publishing, Advances in Consciousness Research, New York

    F.Varela, Laying down a Path in Walking : Cognition from an enactive viewpoint

    (selected papers in preparation)


    BOOKS (Edited)




    Varela,F. (Ed.). Comparative Neurobiology of Vision in Vertebrates ,

    Proceedings of the International Symposium, Punta de Tralca, Chile, November 1982 Biological Reasearch (ex Arch. Biol.Med.Exp. ) Vol.16, Nº2/3, 1983, 145 pp.

    Varela,F. and J.P.Dupuy (Eds.). Understanding Origin: Scientific Ideas on the Origin of Life, Mind, and Society (A Stanford University Interational Symposium) Boston Studies Phil.Sci, Kluwer Assoc., Dordrecht, 1992

    F. Varela and P. Bourgine and (Eds.). Towards a Practice of Autonomous Systems: The First European Conference on Artificial Life,

    MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA. 1992

    Hayward and F.Varela (Eds.). Gentle Bridges: Dialogues between the Cognitive Sciences and the Buddhist Tradition,

    Shambhala Publishers, Boston, 1992

  • French: Passarelles, Albin Michel, 1995

  • German: Gewagte Denkwege, Piper Verlag, 1996

  • ° Spanish: Un Puente para Dos Miradas, Dolmen, Santiago de Chile, 1997

  • Italian: Ponti Sottili, Neri Pozzi Editori, Vincenza, 1998

  • Japanese: Seidosha,Tokyo

  • Chinese: Cung Sheng Publishing House, Taiwan

    Stein and Varela,F. (Eds.). Thinking About Biology: An introduction to Theoretical Biology SFI Series on Complexity, Addision-Wesley, NJ, 1993

    F.Varela (Ed.). Sleeping, Dreaming and Dying: Dialogues between the Sciences and the Buddhist Tradition,, Wisdom Book, Boston, 1997

    • French: Dormir, Rêver, Mourir , NIL Editions, Paris, 1998

    • German: Traum, Schlaf und Tod, Diederichs, München, 1999

    • Spanish: Dormir, Soñar, Morir, Dolmen Ediciones, Santiago de Chile, 1999

    F. Varela and J.Shear (Eds.). The View from Within: First-Person Methodologies in the Study of Consciousness

    Special Issue, Journal of Consciousness Studies , 6(2-3), 1999 also available as book: Imprint Academic, London, 1999

    J.Petitot , F.Varela, B.Pachoud and J.M.Roy (Eds.). Naturalizing Phenomenology: Contemporary Issues in Phenomenology and Cognitive Science

    Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1999






    Moran,D. and F.Varela (1970), Microtubules and sensory transduction, J. Cell Biol. 27:145a.

    Moran,D., J.Rowley, and F.Varela (1975), Are sensory cilia motile?.J.Cell Biol., 67:293a.

    Moran,D. and F.Varela (1976), Evolutionary patterns in sensory cilia, J.Cell Biol. 70 :351a.

    Zill,S., F.Varela, and D.Moran (1977), Modulation of locomotory activity by campaniform sensilla, Neuroscien. Abst. 3:391.

    Varela,F. (1977), Circulus fructuosus, in: Proc.XXXIst Annual Meeting, Soc.Gen.Systems Res. , Denver, CO. pp.116-118.

    Glanville,R. and F.Varela (1980), The inside is out, Proc.III World Congress of Cybernetics , Acapulco, Mexico, pp.322-324.

    Varela,F. (1983), La adaptación como un invariante, Arch. Biol. Med.Exp. 16:345-347a.

    Budnik,V. y F.Varela (1983), La inducción cromática como fenómeno universal, Arch.Biol.Med.Exp. 16:567a.

    Dupuy,J-P and F.Varela (1984), Le conflict autorganisation/ intelligence artificielle, Proc. IX Congrés AFCET , Paris .

    Varela,F. (1987), Cognition without representations, Proc.Osaka 1986 Workshop, Biology Forum 80:241-242.

    Palacios,A. and F.Varela (1988), Color mixture in the pigeon, Annual Meeting Physiol.Society, J.Physiol. 23P

    Luisi,L. and F.Varela (1988), Micellar growth as a model for self-replication and chemical autopoiesis, IV Intl.Kyoto Conf. New Aspects of Organic Chemistry

    Varela,F. and A.Palacios (1988), Dimensionality of the pigeon's chromatic space, European Neuroscien.Assoc. Annual Meeting , Zürich.

    Bonnardel,V. and F.Varela (1989), Response of the human color vision system to sinusoidal power distributions, Neuroscience Abstracts (USA) . 15(1):625.

    Neunschwander,S. and F.Varela (1990), Stimulus triggered oscillations in the avian tectum, Neuroscience Abstracts (USA) 16:(1) 109.

    Bonnardel,V. and F.Varela, (1991) Chromaticity loci of sensitivity thresholds of a deuteranope observer to regular spectral power distributions, ECVP 91

    Neuenschwander,S. and F.Varela (1992), Synchronization of oscillatory responses in the avian optic tectum, Neuroscience Abstracts (USA) 18:(1) 213.

    V. Bonnardel and F. Varela, (1992): Elliptical representation of chromaticity of sensitivity thresholds to regular spectral power distributions, 15th ECVP , Pise, 1992

    Pezard,L. J.Martinerie, J-L Nadrino, J.Müller,F.Varela, and B.Renault (1995), Non-linear forecasting measurements of brain electrical map dynamics, Human Brain Mapp,.Suppl. 1:93.

    F.Varela, J.Martinerie, J.Müller,Pezard,L., C.Adam and B.Renault (1995), Frequency coherence in multi-site cranial recordings in humans during cognitive tasks, Human Brain Mapp, Suppl. 1:207.

    Pezard,L., J.-Ph.Lachaux, J-L Nadrino,.C.Adam, L.Garnero, B.Renault, F.Varela, and J.Martinerie, (1995), Local and global entropy quantification in neuronal systems, Proceddings of the NDCCS'95 Conference, Acta Physica Polonica

    Adam, C., J. Martinerie, M. Le Van Quyen, B.Renault, M. Baulac and F. Varela.(1977), Anticipation of Seizure Onset with Non-linear Analysis of Intracerebral EEG. Epilepsia 38: 217, Supplement 3.

    M.Le van Quyen, J.Martinerie, and F.Varela (1998), Clinical applications for neural noise?, Science Letters 279:1287-88.






    Varela,F. (1972), A review of J.Piaget's Biologie et Connaissance, Orbita (Chile) 3:27-39.

    Varela,F. (1975), A review of S.Beer's Platform for Change , Int.J.Gen.Syst. 2:121-122.

    Varela,F. (1979), A review of J.L.LeMoigne's Theorie du Systeme Int.J.Gen.Syst. 5:76-78.

    Varela,F. (1982), Evolución de la evolución: Una crítica de Le Jeu des Possibles por F.Jacob, Arch.Biol.Med.Exp. 15:9-10.

    Varela,F. (1986), A review of Complex Systems-Operational Approaches by H.Haken (Ed.), Physics Today 40:74-76.

    Varela, F. (1993§), A review of D.Dennett's Consciousness Explained, Am.J.Psychol. , 106:126-129


    Extension Articles




    Maturana,H. y F.Varela (1982), Como conocer el conocer, Creces (Chile), 3:29-34.

    Varela,F. (1983), La biología de la libertad, Mutantia (Argentina), Nº15, Abril, pp.29-34.

    Varela,F. (1983), Darwin, cien años después, Mensaje (Chile), Septiembre 1983, Nº322, pp.510-515.

    Varela,F. (1984), La frontera circular: Las bases biológicas del conocer, Hombre y Universo: Revista Universitaria de la University Católica , Santiago, Marzo, pp.24-29.

    Varela,F. (1984), Biologie der Vernunft, Steirische Berichte , Nº6.

    Varela,F. (1985), El trabajo de red, Mutantia , Nº15, pp.14-15.

    Thompson,W. and F.Varela (1987), Transparency: A trialogue with Nishitani-sensei, Annals of the Earth Winter Issue

    Varela, F. (1989), La rete immunitaria, Sfera 9 (Roma) , pp. 34-36.

    Varela, F. (1990), Autonomie biologique et connaissance, in: Nature de la Pensée , Biblioteque Munip. de Lyon.

    Abraham,R. and F.Varela (1990), Myths within science, Dynamics Newsletter 3:4-5, IS Newsletter 1:10-11.

    Varela,F. (1995), Connaisances et répresentations, BIC (Paris), Nº27, 1995, pp.79-89.

    Rodriguez, E. y F.Varela, Percepcón consciente: Sincronía de groups neurnales, Investigación y Ciencia , Nov. 1999, pp.38-39.

    Varela, F. (1999), Líautorganisation, dans: Sciences et Conscience , Albin Michel, pp.105-109.


    Miscellaneous Contributions



    Varela,F. (1974), Contributions to Cybernetics of Cybernetics , Biological Computer Labortatory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

    Varela,F. (1981), La biologie de la connaissance, Les Entretiens de Monaco , Paris, pp.99-104.

    Varela,F. (1982), Introduction, in: H.von Foerster, Observing Systems: Selected papers by Heinz von Förster , Edited by F.Varela, Intersystems Publications, Santa Barbara, pp.xi-xvi.

    Varela,F. (1985), Die Kunst des Wissens: Foreword to W.I.Thompson's Die Pazifische Herausforderung: Re-vision des politisches Denkens , Dianus Trikont Verlag, München, pp.9-13.

    Varela, F. (1986), Interventions, in: M.Cazenave (Ed.), Signes et Symbols: Les Voies de la Connaissance, Actes du Colloque Intl. de Tsukuba, Aubin Michel/Radio France, Paris.

    Varela,F. (1987), Interventions, in: Cretivité et Desordre , , Editions L'Original, Paris.

    Varela,F. (1989), Creare la danza, Prefazione per M.Ceruti, La Danza che Crea , Feltrinelli, Milano, pp.7-9.

    Varela, F. (1994), Intervention, in: Dalai-Lama, Au-delà des dogmes , Alban Michel Paris, pp.226-258

    Varela, F. (1995), Preface ot Heinz von Foerster's Interview, Stanford Humanities Review , vol.4, No.2, pp.285-288.

    Varela, F. (1995), Il corpo come macchina ontologica: il reale del virtuale, in: Arslab: I sensi del virtuale, Fabbri Editori, Milano, pp.148-150.

    Varela, F. (1995), Les mystères du cerveau, dans: A.Sureau (Ed.), Qu'est-ce qu'on ne sait pas? , Les Rencontres Philosophiques de l'Unesco, Découvertes Gallimard, Paris, p.54-58.

    Varela, F. (1996), Le corps et la expérience vécue, dans: Y.Tardan-Masquelier (ed.), Les Chemins du Corps , Albin Michel, Paris, pp.110-124.

    Varela, F. (1999), The Portable Laboratory , in: Laboratorium, Antwerpen Open, 27 June-3 Octobre.

    Varela, F. (1999), Dialogue avec C.Castoriadis, Editions de l'Aubre, Paris, pp. 59-83.

    Varela, F. (1999), Levels of a cat, in: F.Bonami and H.U.Obrist (Eds.), Dreams , Celtevecchi Artes, Torino.

    Varela, F. (1999), The Portable Laboratory, in Laboratorium Exhibition, Antwerp, June-Octobre 1999, p.50-51.


    Technical Reports




    Maturana, H. and F.Varela (1974), Autopoiesis: The organization of living systems, Biological Computer Lab.Res.Rep. 9.4, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 130 pp.

    Varela,F. (1976), The grounds for a closed logic, Biological Computer Lab.Res.Rep. 3.5, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 79 pp.

    Varela,F. (1987), The science and technology of cognition: Emergent directions, Technical Report for Shell Int.Co. , London.


    Articles on Social Affairs



    Varela,F. (1973), Lectura de Illich, CIDOC Documenta I/V 72, 24pp., Cuernavaca, Mexico.

    Varela, F. (1979), Reflections on the chilean civil war, Lindisfarne Newsletter , Nº8, pp.13-20.

    Varela,F. (1983), La no-violencia en Chile, a la hora de las dudas, en: Alternativas al Pensamiento Social , L.Weinstein (Ed.), Ediciones Minga, Santiago de Chile.

    Varela,F. and eight other chilean scientists (1984), Scientists in Pinochet's Chile, Nature 308:310.

    Varela, F. (1986), Interventions in: The ethics of science (with R.D.Laing, J.Halifax, F.Huxley, and others), in: The Elmwood Institute Transcripts Nº1, Berkeley, 7pp.

    Varela, F. (1987), Interventions in: Table Ronde sur Psychoanalyse et Sciences Cognitives, L'Ane: Le magazine freudien , (Paris), Nº31, pp.39-50.

    Varela,F. (1988), Les multiples figures de la circularité, in: M.Elkaïm et C.Sluzki (Eds.), Auto-référence et Thérapie Familiale, Privat Cahiers de Thérapie Familiale et Pratiques de Réseaux Nº9, Toulouse, pp.45-49.

    also in M.Elkaïm (ed.), La thérapie familiale en changement , Les Empêcheurs de Penser en Rond, Paris, 1994, pp.151-155

    Varela, F., (1988), "Le corp pense", in: J.Miermont et R.Neuburger (eds.), Approche familiale des troubles psychosomatiques , 8e Journée du CEFA, Paris, pp.83-101.

    Varela,F. (1989), Reflections on the circulation between a biology of cognition and systemic family therapy, Fam.Proc. 28:15-24.

    Varela,F. (1989), Interventions dans la Table Ronde "Psychanalyse et Sciences", Esquisses Psychoanalytiques Nº12, Automne 1989, pp.5-39.

    Varela, F., (1990) The absolute near side: Reflections on cognitive science and human experience, in: M.Pacini (Ed.), Valori, Scienza e Trascendenza, Vol.2, Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, pp.225-237.

    • Italian: Educazione dall'amibiente, ambienta dall'educazione, Milano, (in press)

    Varela, F. (1990), Über Farber und Körper in: Wahrnehmung und Individualität, Akademie der Kunst in Wien, pp.25-31.

    Varela, F. (1992), Penser l'IA: Le point de vue d'un biologiste, Université d'Eté, Assoc. Descartes (sous presse)

    Varela, F. (1992), Das zweite Gehirn underseres Körper, in: The End of Grand Designs , Heidelberg






    Varela,F. (1975), On G.Spencer-Brown's Laws of Form, Part I: Foundations, Part II: Self-reference, 4 video casettes, 3 hrs, General Systems Depository , School of Advanced Technology, SUNY at Binghampton, Binghampton, NY, Nº042075.

    Varela, F. (1984), Awakening the dream of the warrior, Ojai Foundation, Ojai, CA, 6 hrs videocassetts (with J.Halifax, R.D.Laing, F.Huxley, and others).

    Varela,F. (1984), Brain Seminar: Conversations with J.Krishnamurti , Brockwood Park, England, 3 videocassetts, 3 hrs.

    Varela,F. and other 3 scientists, (1987) Mind and Life I: Conversation with H.H.Dalai Lama , Dharamsala, India, 12 videocassetts

    Varela,F. and three others (1991), Science and Spirituality , 1 videocasstte

    Varela,F. and other 5 scientists, (1991) Mind and Life II: Conversation with H.H.Dalai Lama , Dharamsala, India, 12 videocassetts

    Varela, F. (1994) Né pour Aprendre , Universityde La Rochelle, 2 videocasstees.

    Varela,F. and other 5 scientists, (1994) Mind and Life IV: Conversation with H.H.Dalai Lama , Dharamsala, India, 12 videocassetts

    Varela, F. (1997), La Belleza de Pensar , ARTV, Santiago de Chile.

    Varela, F. (1999), Science et Buddhism , A2 France, 2 entretiens

    Varela, F. (1999), Visa pour la Science , FR3

    Varela, F. (1999), Portrait , Archimede, ARTE






    Varela,F. (1976), On observing natural systems (Interview by Donna Johnson), CoEvolution Quarterly , Nº11, pp.26-31.

    Varela,F. (1982), Die Biologie der Freiheit (Interview by Rainer Kakushka), Psychologie Heute (Germany) Nº9, Sept. 1982, pp.82-93.

    Varela,F. (1982), Au commencemente fut la distinctionÖ(Interview by Gérard Blanc), Co Evolution (Paris) Nº8/9, Printemps/Eté, pp.24-27.

    Varela,F. (1984), Die möglichkeit der Transformation (Interview by Susan Gerlach), Esotera (Germany), pp.1002-1020. (Also in: G.Geisler (Hrsg.), New Age -Zeugnisse der Zeitwende , Bauer Verlag, Freiburg, 1984).

    Varela, F. (1985), Interview (by Hiroshi Hasegawa), in Gendai-Shiso (Japan) vol.13, pp.214-229.

    Varela, F. (1986), Intrevista a Francisco J.Varela (by Alfonso Iacono), Scienza /Esperienza , Milano, Nº34, 27-29.

    Varela,F. (1986), Interview (by Isabelle Stengers), Cahier CREA Nº9, pp.271-293.

    Varela,F. (1987) Interview (by Shin Yoshifuku), OMNI Japan , March 1987, pp.35-39.

    Varela, F. (1987), Habt Mut zur Erkentniss, (Interview by Angela Roethe), Esotera (FRG) , July 1987, pp.36-41.

    Varela,F. (1987), Cognitive Science and the logic of mirrors (Interview by Allen Brodsky), IS Journal #5, pp.16-26.

    Varela,F. (1987), Interview (by Andres Perez), Analisis (Chile) , No.22

    Varela,F. (1988) Intervista (by Paolo Perticari), Conocere il Handicap, Dec.1988, pp.5-8.

    Varela,F. (1990), Interview (by Maria Rennhofer), Parnass , March/April, pp.96-98

    Varela, F. (1990), Interview (by Louisse Wrijers), Art and Science meet Spirituality , SDU Publishers, Gravnehagen, Holland, pp.184-200.

    Varela, F. (1990) Entretien (avec Angela Marechal), Phréatique: Langage et Création , Nº54, pp.109-120.

    Varela, F. (1990), Entretien (avec Noèlle Batt), TLE, Nº8, pp.165-175

    Varela, F., (1991) Interview (by Dominique Bouchet), Paradoks Copenhaguen, NR 2, pp.14-18

    Varela,F. (1991), Zwischen den Welten, Gespräch mit Ulli Olvedi, Esotera , Oktober 91, pp.33-37.

    Varela, F. (1992), Intrevista (con Nancy Canessa), UnoMismo , Bs.Aires-Chile, Nº25, pp.26-43.

    Varela, F. (1992), Entrevista (con Blanca Moreno), Clínica y Salud, 3:89-98

    Varela, F. (1992), Interview (with William I.Thompson), Annals of Earth , vol.X, Nº2, pp.7-11

    Varela, F. (1993), Intrevista (by Marco Castrigliano), Methodologia

    Varela, F. (1993), Entretien (avec Ariel Kyrov), Actuelle Juillet-Aout Nº 31/32, pp.128-134

    Varela, F. (1993), Entretien (avec Jeanne Mallet et J.F. Dortier), Sciences Humaines, 52-56. Reprinted in: Le Cerveau et la Pensee: La revolution des Sciences Cognitives, Editions Sciences Humaines, 1999, p.327-335.

    Varela,F. (1993), Entretien (avec G.Pessis-Pasternak), Libération, 8 Sept. Also in: G.Pessis-Pasternak, La science: Dieu ou diable?,, Editions Odile Jacob, Paris., 1999, pp.123-131.

    Varela, F. (1993), Entrevista (con Rogerio Costa), Limiares do Contemporaneo , Escuta, Sao Paulo, pp.73-97.

    Varela,F. (1994), Il racconto dell'Identita (avec Franco Floris), Animazione Sociale

    Varela,F. (1994), Entretien (avec B.Joisten et O.Zahn), PurpleProse , 5, Hiver 1994.

    Varela,F. (1994), Entrevista (C.Uribe): Revista Siglo xxi, El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, Jueves 13 de Octubre.

    Varela,F. (1995), Psicoanalisis con-ciencia (B.Moreno), Mundo Científico , Enero, No.153., pp.72-78.

    Varela, F. (1995), La metafora di Varela, Intervista (P.Muscara), SistemaTerra , vol.4, No.1, pp.7-14.

    Varela, F. (1995), Big Mind Science (Eric Davis), Shambhala Sun, September pp. 26-34.

    Varela, F. (1996), Entretien (J.Mallet), Développement des Personnes et Développement des Organisations , Omega Formation Conseil, Aix-en-Provence.

    Varela, F. (1996), Sanfte Brücke Interview mit F.Varela ( T.Zahcmeier), Mandala , No.5, pp. 48-51.

    Varela, F. (1996), Science et Bouddhisme (F.Lenoir), L'Express , No.2364 24 Octobre 1996, p. 60.

    Varela, F. (1996), La aspiración a la sabiduría (C.Ferreira), La Epoca (Santiago de Chile), 27 Ocobre 1996, pp. 22-23.

    Varela, F. (1997), Mente y Vida en diálogo intercultural (M.T.Cárdenas),El Mercurio, Revista de Libros (Santiago de Chile), 30 Agosto 1997, pp. 4-5.

    Varela, F. (1997), En busca de la conciencia (C.Villegas), Paula (Chile), Deciembre, p. 44-51.

    Varela, F. (1998), Le cerveau n'est pas un ordinateur (H.Kempf), La Recherche No.308(Avril), pp.109-112.

    Varela, F. (1998), Researcher Profile (Nola Lewis), IONS Review, No.46, pp.44-45.

    Varela, F. (1999), La conscience: la tempete sous un crâne, (Isabelle Brisson), Le Figaro, Jeudi 4 Février.

    Varela, F. (1999), Portrait: Francisco Varela, le chercheur par qui la pensee se fait chair, (J.P.Dufour), Le Monde Jeudi 18 Février.

    Varela, F. (1999), Autopoiesis and Phenomenology, (Interview by H.Kawamoto), Gendai-shiso (Japan), No.4, 1999, pp.80-93.

    Varela, F. (1999), What a relief! I don't exist: Buddhism and the Brain (Wes Nisker), Inquiring Mind, vol.16 No.1, 1999, p.7-9.



    "Unless we accept that at this point in intellectual and scientific history that some radical re-learning is necessary, we cannot hope to move forward in the compulsive history of the ambivalent rejection-fascination with consciousness in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. My proposal implies that every good student of cognitive science who is also interested in issues at the level of mental experience, must inescapably attain a level of mastery in phenomenological examination in order to work seriously with first-person accounts. But this can only happen when the entire community adjusts itself to the corresponding acceptance of arguments, refereeing standards and editorial policies in major scientific journals, that can make this added competence an important dimension of a young researcher. To the long-standing tradition of objectivist science this sounds like anathema, and it is. But this is not a betrayal of science: it is a necessary extension and complement. Science and experience constrain and modify each other as in a dance. This is where the potential for transformation lies. It is also the key for the difficulties this position has found within the scientific community. It requires us to leave behind a certain image of how science is done, and to question a style of training in science which is part of the very fabric of our cultural identity."

    Francisco Varela, Neurophenomenology : A methodological remedy for the hard problem, Journal of Consciousness Studies, "Special Issues on the Hard Problems", J.Shear (Ed.), June 1996.



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