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  TOPICAL INDEX:
Autopoiesis and Cognition (Maturana & Varela, 1980)

Enola Gaia
 
Copyright © 2000 Randall Whitaker

This material may be freely cited, copied, and/or distributed, so long as the author attribution is included.

   



Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living

Humberto R. Maturana & Francisco J. Varela
Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1980.
Vol. 42: Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science
ISBN: 90-277-1015-5
ISBN: 90-277-1016-3

You can purchase this book now through the Observer Web Book Shop

ornament

Randall Whitaker


Department of Informatics
Umeå Universitet (Sweden)
March 1993.
Index copyright 1993 Randall Whitaker.
This HTML document may be copied, cited, or otherwise used freely, so long as the author attribution is included.

This HTML version constructed by Kevin McGee, February 1996.

Thanks, Kevin!

Introduction

Autopoiesis and Cognition is the key reference in autopoietic theory. It is a relatively small book, comprised of two key papers plus an introduction by Maturana (to the first paper) and a Preface by Stafford Beer (to the second paper). The material is relatively "dense" -- i.e., there are many of ideas and concepts per unit of text. Additionally, the discussion introduces a number of novel terms and relies on them to delineate the line(s) of argument. As such, this book feels as if it is much larger.

Unfortunately, the book does not have a topical index. This is a serious problem for both the new reader and the scholarly researcher. I have compiled the following index to correct this problem.

Notes

Names of Persons
Names of persons are not included herein, because the book contains an Index of Names (p. 141).

Nomenclature
Comments in parentheses are recommendations for the reader. An asterisk (*) indicates a "wild card" entry which can be matched to anything: e.g., 'linguistic *' means 'linguistic domain / interactions', etc. Notations beginning with a dash ('-') indicate another relevant term: e.g., 'teleology (-onomy)' means a reference to either 'teleology' and / or 'teleonomy'.


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A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V 
 

 

absolute reality: 121

abstract thinking: 13,25,29 ff.
and language: 30

adaptation:
and evolution: 105
conservation of: xxi, 105

aesthetic seduction: 58

aim: (see purpose)

allopoiesis: 80
and biological explanation: 113-114

allopoietic machines:
as parts of autopoietic machine: 82
autopoietic machine seen as: 81 ff., 110
boundaries observer-dependent: 81
defined: 80, 135
identity is observer-dependent: 80-81
input-output ascription: 51, 72, 81
non-autonomy of -: 80

allopoietic system(s): 68
and input / output ascriptions: 51, 72, 81

allo-referring/-ed system (cf. allopoietic -): xiii,51

ambience: (cf. environment) 9, 99, 127, 130
connoted by ontogeny: 99, 130
descriptions as part of -: 134
niche as part of --: 9
of composite (coupled) unity: 108, 110
phenomenology of -: 131
recurrent configurations of: 130
reciprocal specification of (in coupling): 108, 110, 130

ambiguity: (of observer of linguistic interaction) 33

analysis: 63

anxiety: (cf. uncertainty)24

"Anything said is said by an observer": 8

artificial systems: 47, 114
as living systems: 83
distinct from autopoietic machines: 79
projected onto living systems: 51
purposeful design of: 51, 114

 

 

association:
and neurophysiology: 43
and 'meaning': 43

autocatalytic processes: 94

autonomy: xiii, 73 ff., 80
defined: 135

autopoiesis:
and phenomenology: 113 ff., 118 ff.
and self-reproduction: 101 ff., 105 ff., 110 .
change in (way of realizing / mode of): 99, 103, 105, 119
the word: xvii
necessary & sufficient definition for living: 82 ff., 88 ff., 112

autopoietic machines / systems:
as homeostats: 78 ff., 92
autonomy of -: 80
boundaries self-determined: 81, 88 ff., 90-91, 109
coupling to constitute new unity: 108 ff.
coupling with internal states: 120 ff.
defined: 78 ff., 135
evolution of: 102 ff., 110 ff.
higher-order: 110 ff.
identity / individuality: 80-81, 90-92, 97, 107, 115 ff.
input / output don't exist: 81, 98, 110
integration into larger systems: 82, 108 ff., 110
irreducibility to parts: 82
limit to higher-order: 111
no 'intermediate' -: 94
not defined by spatial relations: 80
origin of -: 93 ff., 105 ff.
recognition of -: 109
second-order -: 107 ff., 110
seen as allopoietic machines: 81 ff., 110
self-reproduction in: 101 ff., 105 ff., 110 ff.
third-order -: 107 ff., 110
unity in: 109, 111

autopoietic organization: (see also organization) 80 ff., 88, ff.

autopoietic space: 91-93, 97, 110
and compensatory change: 99
defined: 135

 


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A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V 
 

 

behavior: (cf. conduct)
a posteriori evaluation: 36
and nervous system: 18,20 ff.,22,25 ff.,38,43, 124 ff.
as receptor / effector correlation: 26,38,45
constancy over time: 37,43,45, 124
contradictions in -: 52
dependence on structure: 31,38, 119
determinism in: 27,31,45, 124
diversity of -: 119
evolution of -: 102 ff.
historicality in: 43,45, 102 ff., 119, 124, 133 ff.
instinctive: 24
learned: 24,43 ff., 124, 132-133
'logic of': 52
mode / tone of -: 46,52
recursivity of: 25
self-conscious -: 121
validity of- : 57
vis a vis observer: 18,36 ff., 99, 119, 124 ff.

 

 

behavioral coupling: 120

biological explanation: 135

biological phenomena / -ology: 112 ff.
and individual organization: 115 ff., 117-118
and species / societal perspectives: 117-118
as autopoietic phenomenology in physical space: 114, 115 ff.
as subclass of mechanical phenomena: 113, 116
defined: 135
vs. statical - / allopoietic -: 113 ff.

boundary (cf. topology):
and constitutive relations: 90-91, 109
and recognition of autopoietic system: 109
of autopoietic machine: 81, 88, 90-91
of nervous system: 22
of organism: 20

 


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categorization: 63

causality:
causal relations: xviii, 66
and historicality: 102, 124, 128
in-/external agencies in: 128

cell:
as autopoietic system: x, 90, 109
in visual apparatus: xiv ff.
molecular embodiment of-: 90 ff., 109

cellular autopoietic network: x

change:
and nervous system: 128
conservative: 99 ff.
evolutionary: 11, 102 ff.
historical: 102, 115, 128
innovative: 99 ff.
internal: 11
social: 70-71 ff.

choice (of frame of reference for values): 57 ff.

circular organization (cf. organization): xvii, xviii, 9 ff.,48
and higher-order systems: 11,12

circularity:
and nervous system: 18, 125 ff.
basic -: 9,11,18
of component production: xiv,48, 89 ff.
in living systems: 9 ff.,48

class:
of interactions: 10
of unities: xx

code / decode (cf. information): 53 ff., 68 ff., 90, 102
defined: 135

cognition: xiv ff., 6
as biological phenomenon: 7,13,49
defined: 49
observer's vs. animals': 49

cognitive domain:
as domain of descriptions: 119, 121
as interactions: 10,13,38,49, 119
'bounded but unlimited': 51, 121
change in during ontogeny: 119
defined: 136
determined by mode of autopoiesis: 119
expansion via interactions / instruments: 38
in communication: 28,30 ff.,32
observer limited within -: 121
'within a cognitive domain': 13

cognitive system:
defined: 13

color: xiv ff.

communication (cf. language; linguistic *):
as coupling: 120
cognitive domain as basis: 14,27,32
vs. interaction: 28

communicative domain (cf. consensual domain; coupling): 136

communicative interaction: 120

compensable deformations (cf. disturbances / perturbations): 108, 120

compensation:
and coupling: 108, 120
conservative (change): 99
for deformation: 92-93, 98 ff., 108, 119, 120
for perturbation: 79, 81, 99, 108, 119, 127
from observer's viewpoint: 119, 127
innovative (change): 99

compensatory behavior: 120

compensatory changes: 99, 108, 120

complementarity:
ascribed by observer: xxiii

components:
change in (for compensation): 99
distinct from educed parts: 48-49
factibility of -: 89, 91, 94-95
physical: 81, 88 ff., 92 ff., 112 ff.
production of: 48, 79, 88, 91 ff.

 

 

composite unity: (see 'unity)

concepts: 30

conduct:
and anatomy: 31, 124
and learning: 37,43 ff., 124, 132-133
cooperative: 32
defined: 124
determined by nervous system's architecture:20 ff.,24 ff.,43 ff., 124 ff.
determined by domain: 97
elementary unit of nervous system: 19
in orientation / language: 30,32, 120
mode / tone of- : 46
recursivity in: 25
temporality in: 124 ff.

connotation: 28,30,32
emotional - (in learning): 37 ff.

consensual domain (cf. coupling; linguistic *): xxix,32,34, 55, 107 ff., 120
and coupling: 107 ff., 120
and explanations: 55
and orientation / language: 32 ff.,34,50, 120

consensual distinction: 121

consensus: 32

conservative (compensatory) change: 99

consistency (of the theory as guarantor of its value): 6, 88 ff.

constancy of organization: 81, 88 ff.

constitutive relations: (cf. relations of constitution) 90 ff.

context:
and cognition: xxiii, 10
and communicative interactions: 120
and environment: 99
and rationality: 52
and relations of constitution / order: 89
and teleology (-nomy): 85 ff., 87
defined by observer's domain of interactions:10,32,33,52, 109, 120
definitive of systems: xiii, 68, 85 ff., 87, 109
'- of observation': 87

contradictions : (in behavior) 52

control: (see also regulation)
appearance of: xxii, 90
ascribed by observer: xxii, 90

cooperative conduct / interactions: 32,50,57

cooperative domain: 50,57

copy : (form of reproduction) 100 ff.
and culture / social learning: 106
and evolution / history: 103 ff., 106
and heteropoiesis: 102
external to autopoiesis: 101
in domain of interactions: 106

cosmology: (essay as-) xviii

coupling: 107, 120
and communication / language: 120
and evolution / selection: 108, 110 ff.
behavioral -: 120
between autopoietic and allopoietic systems: 108
between nervous system & organism: 127 ff., 130 ff.
defined: 136
recurrent: 130
with system itself (internally): 120 ff.

creativity:
and cognitive domain: 51
and language: xxix
in social system: xxvii ff.
necessarily "antisocial": xxviii
restriction of: xxviii

cultural evolution: 106

cultural learning: 106

cybernetics: 65, 74

 


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deja vu: 38

deformation : (cf. disturbance; perturbation) 92-93, 98, 119
and definition for domain of interactions / ambience: 118 ff., 130
and ontogeny: 98
compensation for: 92-93, 98, 108, 119
from observer's viewpoint: 119
indistinguishability of source: 98 ff., 128 ff.
reciprocal -: 108
sequence of: 98 ff., 108
sources of: 98 ff., 108, 128 ff.

denotation: 28,30 ff.
and observer: 32
symbolic: 30

description: xviii,8,26 ff.
and Berkeley: 53
and thinking: 30,39
as component of ambience: 133 ff.
as source of perturbation: 133 ff.
constrained by organization: 39
first-order (= Description): 27 ff.,32,40
in communication: 14,27,31 ff.,33,35, 120 ff.
'logic of': 39,52
of living systems: 48 ff., 112
recursivity of: 39 ff., 121
relating behavior & niche: 27
second-order (=3D description): 28 ff.,32,52,55

descriptive conduct: (knowledge as -) 119

descriptive domain: (see domain of descriptions)

determinism:
limited to description / describer isomorphism: 53
in behavior: 27,43 ff.,52, 120, 124 ff.
in development: 27
in learning: 43 ff., 124
in orientation: 33, 120
in neuron function:15-19,25, 125 ff.
state- / structural -: 25,52, 120, 124 ff.

development: 87

dimension: (see referential dimension) 133

discourse: 39,52
as mode of behavior: 52
rational -: 52

disintegration: xxi,10, 81, 87, 98, 112, 131

distinction:
as fundamental cognitive operation: xix, xxii, 73
as eduction of unity: xix, xxii, 73, 94, 96, 109
as operative (vs. conceptual) notion: 96
autopoiesis as -: 94
definitive of domain: 96
definitive of unity: 96, 109

 

 

diversity:
defined: 136
in behavior: 119, 124
in biology: 73-74

domain:
ambience as -: 99, 127, 130
biological: 116
cognitive -: see cognitive domain
consensual -: see consensual domain
cultural -: 42,57
defined by distinction: 96
defined by unity: 116
descriptive -: xxii,52,55, 89 ff., 121
historical -: 107
irreducibility one-to-another: 55, 89 ff., 116
linguistic -: see linguistic domain
of changes: 80
of compensations: 81
of descriptions -: see domain of descriptions
of discourse: 39, 96
of existence: 96
of homeostatic trajectories: 97
of interactions -: see domain of interactions
of ontogenic transformations: 97
of recursive interactions (cf. observer): 121
of relations: 8
of self-observation: 121
perceptive: 109
phenomenal -: see phenomenal domain
phenomenological -: see phenomenological domain
topological -: 79, 89

domain of descriptions: xviii,52,55, 75, 89 ff., 96, 119, 121
and autopoietic systems: 89 ff., 119
and cognitive domain: 119, 121
and explanations: 75, 121, 133 ff.
and history: 133 ff.
and teleology (-nomy): 85 ff.
meta-* (and emergence of observer): 121
recursivity in: 39 ff., 121

domain of interactions: xxi,8, 10ff.,21,30,55, 81, 117, 118ff.
and cognitive domain: 119
and language: 30,34,41
and linguistic domains: 41, 120
and phenomenology: 117, 118 ff.
and physical laws: 89 ff., 92 ff., 117
and structure: 21,39, 81, 89 ff., 97, 119
and time / sequence: 133
apparent (in emergence of observer): 121
as cognitive domain: 10,21,38,49,55, 118 ff.
bounded nature of -: 119
cooperative: 57
defined: 118 ff.
defined by organization: 9 ff.,21,39,49, 81, 97
determinant of in-/external ascription: 128
determined by structure: 119
expanded by language: 35
expanded by nervous system: 13
expanded by 'time': 24
not revealed by decomposition of autopoietic machine: 82
predictive nature of: 10

 


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A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V 
 

 

effector surfaces: 20 ff.,25 ff.,51
role in maintaining constancy for receptor surfaces: 51

emotion:
in learning: 37 ff.

emotional tone: 46

empiricism: 63, 66 ff., 83

energy: 89

entity: (cf. unity)
defined by interactions: 40,52
'external' ascribed by observer: 119
'independent': 52

environment: (cf. ambience)
and adaptation: 6, 98 ff.
as source of deformation: 98, 119, 130
defined by observer: 10, 98 ff., 119
information from: 6

epistemology: (cf. knowledge) xxi,5,39,52, 65, 115 ff., 119, 121
and analysis of unities: 49, 89 ff., 96 ff., 115 ff.
and 'scientific' observation: 115 ff.
knowledge as descriptive conduct: 119
observer-dependency of theory: 47
observer-relativity of 'knowledge': 119 ff., 121
substratum for: 39,52

ethics: xxiv ff., xxviii,57 ff., 69 ff., 117 ff.
and love: xxvi
and self-observation: 57
and social stability / change: xxvii ff., 117-118
implications of theory: 57 ff., 69 ff., 117 ff.
significance of action: xxvi

"Everything said is said by an observer": xix, xxii

 

 
evolution:11 ff.,24, 74, 96 ff., 102 ff., 105 ff., 117 ff.
and adaptation: 105
and autopoiesis: 103 ff., 110 ff.
and circular organization:11
and conduct: 31
and 'copy' (reproduction): 103 ff.
and coupling: 108, 110 ff.
and higher-order systems: 110 ff.
and history: 102 ff., 105
and identity(-ies): 104
and languages: 30 ff.
and 'replication': 103 ff.
and 'self-reproduction': 104 ff., 106, 111
and (sequential) reproduction: 103 ff., 105 ff.
and species: 106 ff., 115 ff., 117
and structure: 103 ff., 105
and variation: 105
as consequence of self-reproduction: 104 ff.
as determinant of 'life': 83, 96
as biological explanation: 115, 117
consensual (cultural): 41
determinism in: 31
defined: 103, 136
inessential for living organization: 11, 83, 96
origin of-: 105 ff.
secondary nature of-: 96, 112
selection in-: 104 ff., 111, 117
social: 70-71, 106, 117
sociological ramifications: 117 ff.
vs. ontogeny: 104

existence: (of unity) 96 ff.

experimentation as theory-dependent: 83

explanation:
and temporality: 102 ff., 124
as reformulation: 75, 102, 121
defined: 136
forms of: 75, 115, 121
of behavior / conduct: 124 ff.
of biological phenomena: 115 ff.
spoken: 39
through synthesis: 47,55

external entities: 119

external interactions: 23 ff., 98 ff.

external states: 23
as deformation sources: 98, 127-128
vs. internal -: 41, 98, 127-128

 


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factibility: 89, 91, 94-95

fantasies: 122

feedback: 78

 

 

frame of reference:

choice of (for ethics): 57-58
common (cf. language): 57
in interpreting behavior: 52
and (ir-)rationality: 52

function:
defined: 136
ascribed by observer: 86
explanatory value of-: 86

 


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general cases & experience: 49

glossary: 135

 

 

goals: xiii,50, 66, 77, 85 ff., 87

in learning: 36,44
explanatory value of-: 86

grammar: 34

 


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hallucination: xiv-xv

heteropoiesis: 85, 90, 110
defined: 136
and 'copy' reproduction: 102

higher-order systems: 11, 109 ff.

historical network: 102 ff., 106 ff.

historicality: 24,27
and behavior: 43, 124 ff., 133 ff.
and evolution: 102 ff., 115, 117
and explanation: 102 ff., 115
and language: 34
and nervous system: 131 ff., 133 ff.
and learning: 35,43, 99, 124, 133 ff.

history:
and conduct / behavior: 124, 133 ff.
and explanation: 102 ff., 115, 124
as causal agent: 124, 133 ff.
defined: 102, 136

 

 
evolution and-: 102 ff., 115, 117
in domain of descriptions: 133 ff.
of biology: 74 ff.
ontogeny as-: 98 ff., 103, 130 ff.

homeostat / homeostatic machine / system: xxvii,48, 66
autopoietic systems as -: 66, 78 ff., 92, 98
defined: 136
feedback loops internal in-: 78
nervous system as -: 131
social system as --: xxvii

homeostatic trajectories: 97

'house-building' analogy: 53 ff.

hypocrisy: xxvii

 


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idealism:
metaphysical: 53
subjective: 66

ideas: 30

identity: (cf. individuality)
and evolution: 104, 111, 117
and ontogeny: 104
and relations of order: 92
and relations of specification: 91
autopoiesis vs. earlier philosophical positions: 66 ff.
'despite appearances': 66
maintained through interactions: 9 ff., 66, 73, 97, 112
maintained under deformations: 80, 92-93, 98, 108, 112
of social systems: 70-71, 118
with respect to observer:10, 80-81, 92

individual:
living system as-: 87, 115 ff.
vs. social system: 117 ff.

individuality: 80-81, 87, 92
and biological explanation: 115 ff.
defined: 136
in history / evolution: 107, 115 ff., 117

inductive inference: 49 ff.

inductive nature of living systems: 27,49

inference: 49-50

information: 6,30 ff.,53 ff., 68 ff., 90, 115, 120
and biological explanation: 115 ff.
and communicative interaction: 120
and language: 31-32,50,57, 120
and realization of autopoietic system: 90
and (relations of-) specificity: 90
and reproduction: 102
created by 'listener': 32
'house-building' analogy: 53 ff.
in genetic / nervous systems: 53 ff., 102

 

 

innovative: (compensatory) changes 99

input:
and allopoietic machines: 81
and allo-referring systems: 51
and autopoietic machines: 81 ff., 98
and 'purpose': 86, 87
ascribed by observer: 38, 66, 81, 86
ascribed to allopoietic systems: 72, 81
to nervous system: 38,50, 128

input surface: 82

instinctive behavior: 24

instruments: 38

interaction:,21 ff., 116, 120
chain of interlocked -: 120
cooperative: 32
defining entity: 40
internal / external: 24 ff., 128
linguistic: see language / linguistic *
nervous system / relations: 21,23
physical: 21,23, 116
vs. communication: 28

interdisciplinary studies: 64 ff.
autopoiesis as: 65

interlocked interactions: 120

internal interactions: 23 ff.,29 ff.,38 ff., 81, 120 ff.

internal changes under perturbation: 81, 92-93, 98 ff., 127

internal states:
and evolution: 11-12
and thinking: 29 ff.,39, 120 ff.
as representations: 41, 121, 132
as deformation sources: 98, 120 ff., 128
interaction with:13,23 ff.,26,29 ff.,39, 98 ff., 120 ff., 128
vs. external -:23,41, 98, 127-128

irrational(-ity): 52

 


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knowledge: (cf. epistemology)
and anxiety / uncertainty: 24,37 ff.
and time: 24
as action: xxii, 119
as descriptive conduct: 119
as reflection of ontogeny: 119
as key to cognition: 5
categorized: 63
change during ontogeny: 119
explanations for -: 55
no absolute -: 119, 121
'object of': 52
'objective' --: 5,52
relative to observer's cognitive domain: 119 ff., 121

 


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language: (cf. linguistic *)
and thinking: 30
as information transfer: 32 ff.,50, 120
as symbol system: 30
basis for: 14,27 ff.,30 ff.
evolution and -:30 ff.
extending domain of interactions: 35
limitations of: xiii

learned behavior: 24,45

learning: 24,43 ff., 124, 132 ff.
and representations: 35,45, 132-133
and temporality: 124, 133
defined / described: 35 ff.,45, 132
observer ascribes -: 24,35,45, 133

linguistic behavior: 30 ff., 120
and historicality: 34, 133 ff.
as coupling: 120
as information transfer: 32 ff.,50, 120
as orientation: 30,34,50
as rational: 57
importance of: 34

linguistic domain: 28,32,41, 120
and meaning: 46, 120
and neurophysiology: 41 ff.
and observer: 121
and time: 46
and self-consciousness: 41 ff., 121
closed (internal): 121
defined: 120, 136

 

 

distinct from domain of autopoiesis: 120
explained via coupling: 120
explained by recursive orientation: 42,50, 120
requirements for: 41, 120

linguistic interactions: 42,50, 120
internal / recursive (cf. observer): 121

living machines: 78 ff., 82 ff.

living system: 9 ff.,48, 73 ff., 112 ff.
as machines: 76, 82
as physical autopoietic machines: 82, 86, 88 ff., 92 ff., 112 ff.
as unit of interactions: 9 ff., 87
circular organization of--: 9 ff.,48, 91 ff.
defined in physical space: 93-94, 97, 107, 112 ff.
defined via autopoiesis: 82 ff., 97, 112
description of: 48-49, 73 ff., 89 ff., 92 ff., 112 ff.
individuality in-: 87, 115 ff.
no discrimination made among classes / types: 76
'purposelessness' of -: 86, 87

logic:
of description: 39,52, 121
- = 'logic' of describer: 52 ff.
universal: 121

love: xxvi, xxix

 


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machines: (cf. allopoietic / autopoietic / living -)
characterized: 77 ff.
defined: 136
living systems as-: 76, 77 ff., 82

maintenance of organization: 78-81, 87, 89, 92-93

mapping: (and 'copy'-ing) 100

materialism: 66

meaning: 42,43,46
and behavior: 46
and representations: 43
as observer's description: 43,46
effective in linguistic domain: 46, 120

mechanical phenomenology: 112 ff., 116, 136

mechanicism: 74-76, 113, 137

 

 

mechanism: 63, 113, 116

medium: xx ff.

memory: 36,45, 124, 132-133

metadomain:
of consensual distinctions: 121
of descriptions: xxii
and knowledge: xxii

molecular embodiment: (of autopoietic system) 90 ff.

molecular properties: (and rel's. of constitution / specification / order) 93 ff.

morality: 57 ff.

'motor car analogy' [Beer]: 66 ff.

multicellular organisms: 12, 97, 110

mutual orientation: 14,27 ff.,32, 120

 


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natural selection: (cf. evolution; selection) 117

nerve cells: (see also neurons)
structure of: 15 ff., 125
not directly associable with specific behavior(s): 21

nervous system:
and 'information': 32,53, 127
and interactions: 18,20 ff.
and learning: 36 ff., 124 ff., 132-133
and linguistic domains: 41
and ontogeny: 126 ff., 129, 130 ff.
and 'representations': 1>18,41, 132, 134
and self-consciousness: 41
and vision: xiv ff.
architecture of: 15 ff.,19 ff., 125 ff., 129 ff.
boundary for: 22
closure of: xv,15 ff.,25,55, 127 ff., 129
connectivity in -: 127, 129
coupling to organism: 124-125, 128, 130 ff.
determining conduct: 20, 124 ff.
deterministic nature: 46, 125-127
diversity among species: 129
expanding domain of interactions: 13

 

 
explanation for: 47, 124 ff.
function of: 15 ff.,18,20 ff., 125 ff.
functional unit of: 19, 125
input(s) to: 38,50, 127, 128
localization in -: 22, 129
irreducibility to 'functional parts': 46
optimization of function:44
'pilot analogy': 51
referential states (subdomains) in-: 130
structural units of function not yet defined: 47
subservient to organization: 13,18
uniformity in: 22
unity in: 46
variability in: 19,44, 129 ff.

neurons: (see also nerve cells): 15 ff.,19 ff.,47
as allopoietic units: 125
structural / state-determinism in: 125-126

niche: 9,27
actualization of: 27
defined by interactions: 10,11,27

non-autopoietic dynamic systems: (e.g., a car) 79

novelty: (of relations)51

 


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observation and explanation: 47, 121
of autopoietic systems: 89 ff.
of behavior: 52, 119, 124

observer:
and ambience: 99, 127
and artificial systems: 47, 83
and autopoietic systems: 109, 113 ff.
and communicative interactions: 120
and composite unity: 108 ff., 110
and determinism / predictability: 53, 124
and development: 87 ff
and environment: 119, 127, 128
and evolution: 104
and grammar: 34
and history: 102 ff., 104, 124, 133 ff.
and 'information': 54, 90, 120
and knowledge: xxii ff.,39,45, 119 ff., 121
and language: 14,24,27 ff.,30 ff.,32,34, 120 ff.
and learning: 37,45, 124, 132-133
and 'meaning': 43, 120
and memory: 37,45, 124, 133
and reproduction: 101, 104
and self-consciousness: 121 ff.
and social systems: xxviii, xxix,47
and systems: xviii,48, 82 ff., 104, 113 ff.
and system explanation:50, 66 ff., 75, 89 ff., 102 ff., 109 ff., 113 ff., 119
and teleology (-nomy): 85 ff.
and time: 18, 102 ff., 124
as defining context: 10,32,48 ff.,51-52, 99, 109 ff., 120
as defining frame of reference for behavior:52, 99, 113 ff., 119, 124
as defining relations: 55, 109
as defining systems: 66 ff., 82 ff., 108 ff.
as living system: 9,39, 120 ff.
as nexus among domains: 55, 75, 99, 119
as ultimate reference for any description: 8,10,39, 119
ascribing goals / purpose: 66, 86 ff.
ascribing in-/external causal agents: 128
ascribing (ir-)rationality: 52
ascribing representations: 132, 134
ascribing operant environment: 99, 119, 128
ascribing unity to entities: 48-49, 66, 87, 89 ff., 108 ff.
cognition of: 49, 119, 121
constrained by organization: 39 ff., 109
defined: 8 ff.,14,28 ff.,48, 121, 137
emergence of: 48, 120-122
interpreting behavior: 52, 99, 119, 120, 124
limited to descriptive / cognitive domain: 121
projecting theory onto system: 47

observer-independent properties: (and epistemology)52

ontogenic transformations: 97

 

 
ontogeny: 85, 87, 97 ff., 103
and identity: 104
and nervous system: 126 ff., 130 ff.
change in cognitive domain during -: 119
conservative -: 99
classes of -: 98
defined: 98, 103, 104, 137
determining 'ambience': 99, 130
in physical space: 98, 104
knowledge as reflection of -: 119
vs. evolution: 104

ontology: (cf. reality; existence)
existence of unities: 96 ff., 122
of space: 122
reality explained: 52 ff., 121
substratum for discourse / explanation: 39

operational closure:
of nervous system: 23,25

optimization: 44

organicism: 5 ff., 115

organization:
and information / coding: 90
and reproduction: 101
and simple unities: xx
and topological unity: 89, 91-93, 109
as focus for this theory: 76, 115 ff.
as variable homeostatically maintained: 78-79, 81, 87, 88 ff., 92-93
autopoietic -: 79-80, 88 ff., 91 ff.
constraining descriptions: 39
defined: 77, 137
defining class identity: xx, 91
defining class of interactions: 39
defining relations, not properties: 77, 113
explanation for: 47, 90
maintenance of-: 78-81, 87, 89, 91-93
of composite unity: xix, 77, 108 ff.
ways of maintaining: 81

orient / orientation: (cf. mutual-)14,27 ff.,30 ff.,33
and descriptions: 33
and evolution: 31
and syntax / semantics: 33
context-dependency: 33
defining linguistic domains: 42, 120
in animals: 31

origin: (of autopoietic systems) 93 ff., 105
evolutionary: 105
spontaneous -: 94-95

output(s): 51, 66
and nervous system: 128
and 'purpose': 86, 87
ascribed to allopoietic systems: 72, 81
ascribed to autopoietic * when treated as allopoietic *: 82
not applicable to autopoietic machines: 81, 98

output surface: 82

 


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parapsychology: 68

participation:
of components in composite unity: xx, 94, 108
of humans in social system(s): xxviii, 118

path of autopoiesis: 108

path of structural changes: xxi

perception: xiv ff.

perceptive domain: 109

perspective: 21

perturbation: (cf. disturbance; deformation) xxi,51, 79, 81, 87
and coupling: 108, 120
and nervous system: 127 ff., 130
and reproduction: 101
compensation for: 79, 81, 108, 120
internal vs. external source: 98 ff., 120 ff., 127-128
recurrent: 130
reciprocal -: 108, 110, 120

phenomenal domain: xviii, xix,55
defined: xxi
simple vs. composite unity: xxi, 108

phenomenological domain: 55, 97, 116, 121
and logic: 121
defined: 137
defined by unity: 116
intersection among *s: 116
irreducibility (to another): 55, 116 ff.

phenomenology:
and deformation / perturbation: 98 ff., 112, 118 ff., 127 ff.
and reproduction: 101
biological: xviii, 73 ff., 88 ff., 97, 112 ff., 114
domain-specificity of-: 55, 96 ff., 110
explained via autopoiesis: 88 ff., 97, 109 ff., 112 ff.
mechanical: 112 ff., 116
statical: 112 ff.

phylogeny: 85

physical autopoietic machines: 81 ff., 88 ff., 113
as living systems: 82 ff., 88 ff., 112
phenomenology and -: 113 ff.

physical interactions: 21,23
and nervous activity: 23 ff.
and phenomenology: 97, 112 ff., 114, 118 ff.

 

 

physical laws: 81, 89, 112-113

physical neighborhood (-relations): (cf. relations of constitution) 91-92, 93

physical space: xviii, 81, 112 ff.
assumption of (for theory): 122
autopoiesis in -: 81, 84, 88, 93-94, 97, 109, 112 ff., 122
and mechanicism: 75, 113
defined: 137
living systems defined in-: 81, 88 ff., 93 ff., 97, 107, 109, 112 ff., 122
ontogeny in -: 98, 107, 112 ff.
phenomenology in-: 97 ff., 112 ff., 114

'pilot analogy' for living system behavior: 51

plasticity: 99

'point of view': 21

predictability::
and description / describer isomorphism: 53
of 'machine': 82-83, 86
of 'living system': 82-83

prediction: 86, 122
in descriptive domain: 122

Principles of Biological Autonomy (Varela, 1979): ix

processes:
definitive of autopoietic machines: 79, 108 ff., 113
definitive of biological phenomena: 113, 122

production of components:
definitive of autopoiesis: 79, 91 ff., 108 ff.

projection of theory onto system: 47

properties:
definitive of physical / statical phenomena: 113
of components in machines: 77 ff., 81, 92 ff., 112 ff.

psychology: 65

purpose: (see also: goals; teleology / -nomy) 66, 86 ff.
and machines: 77 ff., 136
as simplifying explanations: 78
ascribed by observer: 85 ff., 87
defined: 136 / 137
defined via input / output / context: 86, 87
dispensability of -: 85 ff.
explanatory value of-: 86

 


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rational: (-ity) 52
in linguistic behavior: 57

rationalism: (-ist) 63, 66

reactive perspective: (cf. emotional tone) 46

reality: (cf. ontology; epistemology)
and Description: 40
and descriptions: 52 ff., 121
capacity of observer to describe: 119, 121

recall: see memory

receptor surfaces: 20 ff.,24 ff.

recurrent perturbations: 130

reciprocity: 108 ff.
in coupling: 107 ff., 120
- of deformations: 108, 120
- of disturbances: 108
- of perturbations: 110

recursion:
in behavior: 23 ff.
in description: 28 ff.,35, 121
in interactions: 121
in orientation: 42

reductionism: xxi, 63
impossibility of: xxi,40
of autopoietic machines to allopoietic parts: 82

reference:
and distinction: xxii
frame of- (and behavior): 52

referential dimension: 133

referential states: 130

reflex:
characterized: 29
vs. 'thinking': 29 ff.

regulation: 68 ff., 90 (see also control)
and relations of order: 90, 91 ff.
defined: 137

relations:
and interactions: 38-39
and 'universal logic': 121
and nervous system function: 21,23,38, 128 ff.
as focus for theory: 76
as the key 'properties' of system components: 77
as 'the stuff of systems': 63
ascribed by observer: 38,51,55, 109
change in (for compensation): 99
defining machines: 77, 113
discrimination of: 38,51,55
in theory (cf. artificial systems): 47,5163
physical vs. processual: 113
'pure': 13
spatial - & autopoiesis: 80, 109
topological: 109

 

 

relations of constitution: (also 'constitutive relations')
and composite unities: 110
and geometric / energetic properties: 93
defined: 88, 90-91, 137
not exclusive to autopoietic systems: 93

relations of contiguity:
defined: xxi
and "control": xxii

relations of order:
and composite unities: 110
and molecular properties: 93 ff.
and 'regulation': 90
as descriptive notion: 89
defined: 88, 91 ff., 137
not exclusive to autopoietic systems: 93

relations of specification / specificity:
and chemical properties: 93
and composite unities: 110
and identity: 91, 110
and 'information' / 'code': 90
as descriptive notion: 89
defined: 88, 137
not exclusive to autopoietic systems: 93

relativity:
of truth & values: 57 ff.
of knowledge: 119, 121

replication: 100 ff.
and evolution: 103 ff.
external to autopoiesis: 101

representations: 14,22 ff.,28,41, 99, 121, 132, 134
and communication: 28,53 ff.
and 'meaning': 43
and memory: 36,45, 124, 132-133
and nervous system: 22 ff.,25,41, 132, 134
apparent (cf. emergence of observer): 121
as explanations: 39, 121
as internal states: 41, 121, 132
ascribed by observer: 132, 134
of environment / ambience: 99, 127, 132, 134
'house-building' analogy: 53 ff.

reproduction: 100 ff.
and evolution: 12, 96, 100 ff., 103, 111
and 'information': 102
and phenomenology: 101
as 'copy': 100-101, 103 ff., 106
as determinant of 'life': 83, 96 ff.
as 'replication': 100, 103 ff.
as 'self-reproduction': 101
defined: 137
dependent on autopoiesis: 97, 100
dependent on nature of unity: 102
inessential for living organization: 11, 83, 96
secondary nature of-: 96, 100, 112
sequential -: 103 ff.

 


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scholasticism: 63, 66

second-order autopoietic systems: 107 ff., 110

selection: 104 ff., 111, 117
defined: 137
social ascription of -: 117 ff.

self-consciousness: 14,29,35,41,55, 121
defined: 121, 137
equated with self-observation: 121

self-observation: 14,41, 121

equated with self-consciousness: 121

self-reference: xiii, 10

self-referr-ed/-ing system: xiii,10,12,50
definitive of own boundary: 20
'pilot analogy': 51

self-reproduction: 101 ff., 104
and evolution: 104 ff., 111
and 'information': 102
defined: 137 ff.
limited to autopoietic systems: 101

semantics: 33
inseparability from syntax: 33
'meaning': 43

sensory surfaces: 20

sequential reproduction: 103 ff., 106

simple unity: see 'unity'

social abuse: xxix, 117

social phenomena: xxv, 117

social system: xxiv ff., 117 ff.
and autopoiesis of constituents: xxiv, xxv, 117-118
and language: xxiv, xxvi
as biological / autopoietic systems: 70 ff., 118
as homeostatic system: xxvii, 71
as medium for constituents' ontogeny: xxv, 106
change in --: xxvii ff., 70 ff., 106
conservatism of: xxvi ff.
definitive of its domain: xxv
evolution / biology as justification for: 117 ff.
hypocrisy in --: xxvii
Maturana / Varela disagreement over -: 70, 118
natural --: xxiv
non-hierarchical: xxix
not justified by biological explanation: 117-118
stabilization in --: xxviii ff.
totalitarian: xxviii

solipsism: 53

 

 

space:
assumed for theory: 122
autopoiesis not defined by spatial relations: 80
autopoietic: 91-93, 97
autopoietic - vs. descriptive -: 89 ff., 92, 109
Cartesian: 92
defined by coupling in composite unity: 108
defined by relations of production (in autopoiesis): 88 ff., 91-92, 108 ff.
defined by unity: xix, 88, 89, 83 ff., 93-94, 108 ff.
dimensions of: 89-90, 92-93
entity's constitution & definition of its components in-: 77 ff., 79, 80, 88 ff., 93 ff., 108 ff.
ontology of -: 122
physical: (see physical space)
setting for distinction: xix, 73, 94, 96 ff., 109

species:
and evolution: 106 ff., 115 ff., 117
and history: 106 ff., 117
and nervous system diversity: 129
and niche: 21
as unit of biology: 74, 106, 115 ff.
defined: 106, 138

spontaneous origin: (of autopoietic systems) 94-95

stability (2nd-order system): 111

state-determinism: (cf. structural determinism)
in behavior: 52, 124
in nervous system: 25,52, 124 ff.

statical phenomenology: 112 ff., 117
defined: 138

subjective idealism: 66

structural coupling: (cf. coupling)
defined: xx ff.
in social systems: xxvi

structural determination: (cf. state-determinism) 120, 124 ff.

structural realization: 88

structure:
defined: 77, 138
determining domain of interactions: 119, 120
and ontogeny: 98
and simple unities: xx
dependent on physical laws (for physical components): 81, 88 ff., 93 ff.
of composite unity: xx, 88 ff., 92 ff., 109
physical: 81, 89 ff., 93 ff.

surface: ( receptor / effector) (see effector -- / receptor --)

syntax: 33,34
inseparable from semantics: 33

synthesis: 63, 65

system:
living: xiii ff.
open: xiii
subjective aspects of: 66 ff.

 


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teleology: (see also teleonomy)
dispensability of -: 85 ff.
explanatory value of-: 86, 87
in system description: xiii, xviii ff.,50, 66, 77, 85 ff., 87
unneeded to explain learning: 44

teleonomy: (see also teleology)
defined: 138
dispensability of -: 85 ff.
explanatory value of-: 86, 87
in system description: 75, 77

temporal domain: 38

temporality: (cf. time) 124 ff., 131 ff.

theory:
as integrative relations: 47
consistency of: 6
determinant of experimentation: 83

thermodynamics: 89

thinking: 13,25,29 ff.,52
and descriptions: 30
and language: 30
and nervous system recursivity: 29
as mode of behavior: 52
rational -: 52
vs. reflex: 29

 

 

third-order autopoietic systems: 107 ff., 110

thoughts: 24

time: (cf. temporality) 18,24,35,38,46, 124
and learning: 35,38, 124
as function of observer: 18,38, 124, 133
as effect of nervous system: 124 ff., 133
as feature of domain of descriptions: 188
effective in linguistic domain: 46
organism always in present: 24,35,46, 124

topological relations: 109

topology: (of system) 79, 88 ff., 90-91, 93 ff., 109
and autocatalytic process: 94
and relations of constitution: 88, 90-91, 93, 109
dependent on organization: 89, 109

totalitarianism: xxviii ff.

trajectory: 97

truth: 57-58

 


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uncertainty:
and 'information': 54
in learning (cf. anxiety): 24,37 ff.

unity: (the attribute)
as sole existence criterion: 96
definitive of living systems: 75, 93-94
determinant of reproduction: 102
specified via distinction: xix,48 ff., 73, 94, 96
topological: 94

 

 

unity: (a unit entity)

composite: xix,48 ff., 77, 108 ff., 110
constituted by coupling: 108 ff.
defined: 138
defined by autopoiesis: 88 ff., 94, 109, 110
definitive of living systems: 75, 93-94
definitive of phenomenological domain: 116
irreducibility to 'parts': 49
limit to higher-order -: 111
machine as composite -: 77 ff.
simple: xix
specified via distinction: xix,48 ff., 73, 94, 109

university: (Beer's critique of -) 64 ff.

use of machine(s): see purpose, teleology (-nomy) 77

 


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values: 57-58, 117 ff.
transcendental * justifying social order: 117 ff.

variation: 101 ff., 105
fundamental to evolution: 105

vision: xii; xiv ff.

vitalism: 74

 

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