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Information Warfare Bibliography


Information Warfare

Compiled by Randall Whitaker, Ph.D.

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communications security, computer security, COMSEC, COMPSEC, COMPUSEC, cyberspace, cyberwar, cyberwarfare, electronic warfare, EW, hackers, hyperwar, information assurance, information dominance, information operations, information ops, information revolution, information security, INFOSEC, information superiority, information warfare, IW, IW-D, Military Technical Revolution (MTR), netwar, network centric warfare, Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), third wave war (-fare), warfare

Listing Date: 7 June 1998

This Edition Copyright © 1998 Randall Whitaker
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, Except as follows....

This documentation may be freely copied for personal use, distributed, cited, etc., so long as author attribution is included. Inclusion of this document in any persistent product (e.g., rehosting / reposting on WWW) without author permission is expressly prohibited.

This is a compilation of documents on the subject of information warfare (IW) and the relevant issues which serve to contextualize it.

Where appropriate, hot links are provided to online sources for the listed documents.

You can directly pursue access to book-length materials through -- 'Earth's Biggest Bookstore'. Simply click on the " [ACCESS VIA AMAZON] " links. If you'd like to do your own searching / scanning of, simply jump to this Web page's Search Amazon facility.

This listing focuses on documentation (papers, books, etc.) on the subject. For listings of Internet-accessible resources on information warfare, see the IW Internet Resource Guide at this site.


Achevarria, Antulio J.

Dynamic Inter-Dimensionality: A Revolution in Military Theory, Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1997. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

Achevarria, Antulio J., and John M. Shaw

The New Military Revolution: Post-Industrial Change, Parameters, Vol. 22 (Winter 1992-93), pp. 70-79.

Ackerman, Robert K.

Military Planners Gird for Information Revolution, SIGNAL (AFCEA), May 1995, pp. 71-76.

Ackerman, Robert K.

Advanced Information Systems Impel Operational Technologies. SIGNAL (AFCEA), Vol. 50, no. 7 (March 1996): pp. 41-43.

Ackerman, Robert K.

Businesses Face Threat of Information Warfare. SIGNAL (AFCEA), Vol. 50, no. 10 (June 1996), pp. 45-46.

Ackerman, Robert K.

Navy Doctrine, Systems Face Information Warfare Makeover, SIGNAL, Vol. 50, no. 11 (July 1996), pp. 57-60.

Ackerman, Robert K. (authorship assumed from initials / byline, p. 62)

Marine Corps Information Warfare Combines Services' Needs, Defines Their Differences, SIGNAL, Vol. 50, no. 11 (July 1996), pp. 61-62.

Agre, Philip E., and Marc Rotenberg (Eds.)

Technology and Privacy : The New Landscape, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1997.


Air Chronicles (USAF journal)

Special WWW Page on: Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues, March 1996. Available via WWW at:

This is a major compendium of material on the prospects for future warfare, with much of the discussion revolving around the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and IW.

Air Power Studies Centre (Australia)

Military Information Operations in a Conventional Warfare Environment. APSC paper no. 47, 1996. Available via WWW at:

Alberts, David S.

The Unintended Consequences of Information Age Technologies. National Defense University Press, April 1996. Available via WWW at:

A general overview of the ways in which the Information Revolution is affecting military command, intelligence, and doctrine.

Alberts, David S.

Defensive Information Warfare, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, August 1996. Text available via WWW at:

Alberts, David S., and Richard E. Haynes

Information Warfare Workshop: Decision Support Working Group Report. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995) Washington DC: National Defense University, pp. 569-576.

Alberts, David S., and Richard E. Haynes.

The Realm of Information Dominance: Beyond Information War. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology. (June 1995) Washington DC: National Defense University, pp. 560-565.

Alberts, David S., and Daniel S. Papp (Eds.)

The Information Age: An Anthology on Its Impact and Consequences. Washington DC: National Defense University, 1997. Available via WWW at:

Aldrich, Richard W.

The International Legal Implications of Information Warfare. Colorado Springs CO: US Air Force Academy's USAF Institute for National Security Studies, INSS Occasional Paper 9 in the Information Warfare Series, April 1996. Available via WWW at:

Aldrich, Richard W.

The International Legal Implications of Information Warfare, Airpower Journal, Fall 1996. Available via WWW at:

This is (at least nearly) identical to the April 1996 paper of the same name cited above. Aldrich opens up a number of interesting issues relating to how IW and "third-wave" military operations relate to established conventions governing the conduct of war. A good paper to check out if you're primarily interested in legal / social / humanitarian aspects of the emergent warform.

Alexander, David

Information Warfare and the Digitised Battlefield. Military Technology, Vol. 19 (September 1995), pp. 57-59.

Allard, Kenneth

Data Transforms Warfare. Defense News, Vol. 11, no. 9 (March 1996).

Allard, Kenneth.

Information Operations in Bosnia: A Preliminary Assessment, Washington D.C.: National Defense University Institute for National Strategic Studies report Number 91, November 1996. Available via WWW at:

Anderson, Kent

Intelligence-Based Threat Assessments for Information Networks and Infrastructures: A White Paper, Global Technology Research Inc., March 1998. Available via WWW at:

This is a very nice summarization of the issues and state of the art in information security (broadly defined).


Maximum Security : A Hacker's Guide to Protecting Your Internet Site and Network, New York: SAMS, 1997.

A recent and massive book on the technical background to hacking. Aimed at an audience with at least minimal understanding of Unix, TCP/IP, and the like. Although information in this area becomes obsolete very quickly, this volume contains enough (and enough that is recent) to be useful. In addition, the compilations of bibliographic materials and software tools provide sufficient 'mass' to make this a justifiable addition to one's IW library.


Anthes, Gary H.

Info-terrorist threat growing, Computerworld, January 30, 1995.

Anthes, Gary H.

Info Warfare Risk Growing, Computerworld, May 1995.

Anthes, Gary H.

New laws sought for Info Warfare, ComputerWorld, 5 June 1995. Available via WWW at:

Anthes, Gary H.

Net Attacks Up, Defenses Down. Computerworld , 15 January 1996, pp. 71-72.

Arana-Barradas, MSgt. Louis A.

Global presence: The new approach, Washington D.C.: Air Force News Service, July 15, 1995.

Arnett, Eric H.

Welcome to hyperwar, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 48, No. 7, September 1992, pp. 14-21.

Arnett's article is one of the overlooked precursors to current interests in IW. Its focus is more on the application of artificial intelligence and robotics toward conducting war through highly diverse and highly mechanized means. Still, many of the issues Arnett brings up are still pertinent, even though the focus of IW concerns has largely shifted toward information and computer security.

Arnold, H. D., J. Hukill, J. Kennedy, and A. Cameron

Targeting Financial Systems as Centers of Gravity: 'Low Intensity' to 'No Intensity', Defense Analysis, Vol. 10, no. 2 (August 1994).

Arquilla, John

The Strategic Implications of Information Dominance, Strategic Review, no. 3 (June 1994), pp. 24-30.

Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt

Cyberwar is coming!, Comparative Strategy, Volume 12 (1993), no. 2, pp. 141-165.

Text available via WWW at:


Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt

Cyberwar and Netwar: New Modes, Old Concepts, of Conflict (Excerpt from RAND publication P-7791: Cyberwar is Coming!), Rand Research Review, Vol 19:2 (Fall 1995), Information War and Cyberspace Security. Available via WWW at:

Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt

The Advent of Netwar, Santa Monica CA: RAND Corporation, 1996.


Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt

In Athena's Camp : Preparing for Conflict in the Information Age, Santa Monica CA: RAND Corporation, 1998.


Aviation Week & Space Technology

EW Expands Into Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare, October 10, 1994, pp.47-48.

Aviation Week & Space Technology

Managing Data to Win the Information War, 1 January 1996.

Baker, David

The Shape of Wars to Come, New York; Stein and Day, 1982.

Baker, Stewart

Defending Against Information Warfare, Journal of Commerce, 22 April 1996. Available via WWW at:

Barnett, Jeffery R.

Future War: An Assessment of Aerospace Campaigns in 2010. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press,1996.

Banks, Michael, A.

Web Psychos, Stalkers, and Pranksters : How to Protect Yourself in Cyberspace, Coriolis Group, 1997.

A non-technical summary of the 'social engineering' vagaries encountered in cyberspace.

"I wrote this book for anyone who's ever wondered about the strange things they may have encountered on the Internet--and for those who may have been harrassed, threatened, stalked, or ripped off by any of the "Web psychos" wandering the Net. In it, I show you how to deal with those sorts of problems. The book also shows you how to avoid such problems altogether. There are also techniques for protecting your privacy, and quite a bit more."

(Michael Banks)


Barrett, Daniel J.

Bandits on the Information Superhighway (What You Need to Know), Sebastopal, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, 1996.


Bassham, Lawrence E., and W. Timothy Polk

Threat Assessment of Malicious Code and Human Computer Threats, National Institute of Standards and Technology Report NISTIR 4939, October 1992. Available via WWW at:

Baumard, Philippe

From InfoWar to Knowledge Warfare: Preparing for the Paradigm Shift. Essay available via WWW at:

Bennett, Lisa, and Bruce Niedrauer

Center of gravity, Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, April-June 1995, p. 25.

Berger, Alex (Capt.)

The Low-Tech Side of Information Warfare, paper available at the USAF Air University site at:

Berkowitz, Bruce D.

Warfare in the Information Age, Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 12, no. 1 (Fall 1995), pp. 59-66.

Bishop, Matt, Cheung, Steven, and Christopher Wee

The Threat from the Net, IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 34, no. 8 (August 1997), pp. 56-63.

Blount, Kerry

A Two-Component Strategy for Winning the Information War, Army, January 1995.

Blount, Kerry

Wrestling with Information Warfare's Dark Side, Army, Feburary 1996, pp. 9-12.

Bodnar, John W.

The Military Technical Revolution: From Hardware to Information, Naval War College Review, Summer 1993, pp. 7-21.

Bodnar, John W., and Rebecca Dengler

The Emergence of a Command Network, Naval War College Review, Autumn 1996, pp. 93-107. Available via WWW at:

A general overview of how the RMA, IW, and other emergent factors will impact command and control (framed with respect to organizational structures and communications).

Boldrick, Michael R.(Col.)

Information Warfare: The Next Major Change in Military Strategies and Operational Planning, Soldier-Scholar, Vol. 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 11-19.

Boorda, Jeremy M.

Leading the Revolution in C4I, Joint Forces Quarterly, Autumn 1995. Available (in PDF / Adobe Acrobat format) via WWW at:

Bowdish, Randall G.

The Revolution in Military Affairs: The Sixth Generation, Military Review , Vol. LXXV, no. 6 (November-December 1995). Available via WWW at:

Boyd, John R. (Col.)

A Discourse on Winning and Losing, Air University Library, Maxwell AFB Report no. MU 43947 (unpublished briefing), August 1987.

This document (a binder filled with multiple papers and briefing charts) is the primary documentary source for Boyd's OODA Loop. To the best of my knowledge, the only "official" copies are the one at the Air University Library and one in some library unit at the Pentagon.

Brandt, Daniel

Infowar and Disinformation: From the Pentagon to the Net, NameBase NewsLine, No.11, October-December 1995. Available via WWW/Gopher at:


Braunberg, Andrew C.

Air Force Pursues Two-Sided Information Warfare Strategy. SIGNAL (AFCEA), Vol. 50, no. 11 (July 1996), pp. 63-65.

Brewin, Bob

Info warfare goes on attack, Federal Computer Week, Vol. 9, no. 11 (October 23, 1995), pp. 1, 45.

Brewin, Bob, and Heather Harreld

DOD adds attack capability to infowar: Move follows latest round of hacks Federal Computer Week, March 2, 1998. Text available via WWW at:

Brook, James, and Iain A. Boal (Eds.)

Resisting the Virtual Life : The Culture and Politics of Information, New York: City Lights Books, 1995.

More a popular than a military / technology book, but it contains a number of interesting points about the 'lure' of the emergent virtual / Internet culture.


Buchan, Glenn C.

Information War and the Air Force: Wave of the Future? Current Fad?, RAND Corporation Issue Paper, March 1996. Available via WWW at:

Bugliarello, George.

Telecommunications, Politics, Economics, and National Sovereignty: A new game, Air Power Journal, Spring 1996.

Available via WWW as:

Bugliarello contrasts the 'territories' in which political and economic power are played out. This article is an excellent introduction to the notions that the emerging 'world map' is neither uniform nor identical to a conventional geographic layout. Bugliarello's focus on this paper is the increasingly common 'telecommunity'.

Bunker, Robert J.

The Tofflerian Paradox, Military Review, May/June 1995, pp. 99-102.

Bunker, Robert J.

Rethinking OOTW, Military Review , Vol. LXXV, no. 6 (November-December 1995). Available via WWW at:

Bunker, Robert J.

Generation, Waves, and Epochs: Modes of Warfare and the RPMA, Air Power Journal, Spring 1996, pp. 18-28.

Available via WWW as:

Bunker examines the currently-trendy Tofflerian notion of 'third-wave warfare', and compares the Tofflerian view of military history with the more recently-formulated concepts of fourth generation warfare and fourth epoch warfare.

Busey, Adm. James B., USN (Ret.)

Information Warfare Calculus Mandates Protective Actions, Presidents Commentary, SIGNAL, October 1994, Official Publication of AFCEA, p.15.

Busey, James B. (Adm. USN, ret.)

Information Superiority Dashes Thorny Power Projection Issues, SIGNAL (AFCEA), November 1994.

BYTE Magazine

Noted & Notorious Hacker Feats, September 1995. Available via WWW at:

A brief synopsis of fable 'hacker' and 'cracker' feats.

C4I News

Welcome to Infowar, Vol. 3, no. 1 (January 19, 1995).

Campen, A. D. (ed.)

The First Information War: The Story of Communications, Computers, and Intelligence Systems, Fairfax VA: AFCEA International Press, 1992.

This is a compilation of papers retroactively analyzing the Persian Gulf War in terms of Allied advantages in information acquisition, processing, and exploitation. As such, this book is a concrete assessment of the new way of appraising military operations. This alone would make it noteworthy among the myriad IW offerings. However, the authors' experience in military science and affairs makes the material faithful to, as well as perceptive of, the IW implications of the Gulf War.


Campen, Alan (Col., USAF, ret.)

Information Warfare is Rife With Promise, Peril, SIGNAL, Vol. 48 (November 1993), pp. 19-20.

Campen, Alan D. (Col., USAF, ret.)

Intelligence Leads to a Renaissance in Military Thinking, SIGNAL (AFCEA), August 1994.

Campen, Alan D. (Col.)

Rush to information-based warfare gambles with national security, SIGNAL, Vol. 49, no. 11 (July 1995), pp. 67-69.

Campen, Alan D.

Vulnerability of Info Systems Demands Immediate Action: Reliance by Military on Commercial Communications Infrastructure Poses Significant Peril to United States. National Defense , November 1995, pp. 26-27.

Campen, Alan D.

Assessments Necessary in Coming to Terms with Information War: Strategy, Doctrine for Information Warfare Require Agreed Upon Definitions, Understanding. SIGNAL, Vol. 50 (June 1996), pp. 47-49.

Campen, Alan D., Dearth, Douglas H., and R. Thomas Goodden (eds.)

Cyberwar : Security, Strategy, and Conflict in the Information Age, Fairfax VA: AFCEA International Press, 1996.

This collection of papers is one of the better basic overviews of IW generated within the military community.


Campen, Alan D.

It's Vulnerability, Not Threat -- Stupid!, SIGNAL, Vol. 52 (September 1997), pp. 69-70.

Carroll, John M.

Computer Security (Third Edition), Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.

"Overviews recent advances in computer security, computer crime, systems security, and cryptology, and details classic case histories in computer crime, with sections on physical security, communications, surveillance, system security, and risk management and analysis. Topics include LAN and database security, emanations security, screening and management of personnel, and disaster control."

(Booknews, 1996)


Casper, Lawrence E., Irving L. Halter, Earl W. Powers, Paul J. Selva, Thomas W. Steffens, and T. LaMar Willis

Knowledge -- Based Warfare: A Security Strategy for the Next Century, Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn 1996. Available (in PDF / Adobe Acrobat format) via WWW at:

Castells, Manuel

The Rise of the Network Society (Information Age, Vol.1), Malden MA: Blackwell, 1996.

A sociological analysis of the manner in which networks (as paradigmatic of emerging architectonics) are affecting social, political, and economic life.


Castells, Manuel

The Power of Identity : The Information Age - Economy, Society and Culture (Information Age, Vol. 2), Malden MA: Blackwell, 1997.

A sociological analysis building upon the Tofflers and Naisbett (Megatrends).


Cebrowski, Arthur K. (Vice Adm.), and John J. Garstka

Network-Centric Warfare: Its Origin and Future, Naval Institute Proceedings, Volume 124/1/1, January 1998. Text available via WWW at:

An introduction to the emerging 'spin-word' of 1998 -- 'network-centric warfare'. This term (of Navy origin) connotes the IW concept from the perspective of a network-oriented milieu.

Center For Advanced Command Concepts and Technology (ACT) National Defense University

Operations Other Than War (OOTW): The Technological Dimension, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, November 1995. Available via WWW at:

This report documents the results of meetings bringing together operators, planners, researchers, and analysts to identify and examine those aspects of command and control in operations other than war (OOTW). The documentation addresses a number of topics concerning the utilization of IT in such operations.

Chomsky, Noam

Media Control : The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda, Seven Stories Press (The Open Media Pamphlet Series , No. 1), 1997.

A concise and interesting (if sometimes doctrinaire) review of propaganda in and by the USA during the 20th Century.


Clapper, James R.(Lt. Gen. USAF) and Eban H. Trevino, Eban H.(Lt Col. USAF)

Critical Security Dominates Information Warfare Moves, SIGNAL, Vol. 49, no. 7 (March 1995), pp. 71-72.

Clark, Franklin, Diliberto, Ken, and Vernon J. Geberth

Investigating Computer Crime (CRC Series in Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations), Boca Raton FL: CRC Press LLC, 1996.

A practitioner's handbook on planning for, identifying, and investigating computer crimes generally. One of the few hardcore references for those who must grapple with the prospect of crime in cyberspace.


Clark, Howard W. and Wallfesh, Saundra K

Measuring Effectiveness of Theater Information Warfare/Command and Control Warfare Campaigns, FIESTACROW +95, (Command and Control Warfare in Joint Operations track), Association of Old Crows, San Antonio, TX, April 1995.

Cline, Mary Ann(Maj.)

The Growing Importance of the Intelligence Community in Information Warfare, Defense Intelligence Journal, Vol. 5 (Spring 1996), pp. 83-86.

Cline, Ray S.

Intelligence Warfare: Today's Advanced Technology Conflict , New York: Crescent Books, 1983.

Clodfelter, Mark and John M.Fawcett

The RMA and Air Force Roles, Missions and Doctrine, Parameters, Summer 1995.

Cloughley, Brian.

Peace in Mind: Will the UN Give Psyops a Chance? Jane's International Defense Review, Vol. 29 (March 1996), pp. 59-61.

Cole, Robert (ed.)

Encyclopedia of Propaganda, M. E. Sharpe, 1998.

With contributions from over 200 writers, this three-volume set is my new nomination for the definitive work on the subject.


Cooper, J. R.

Another View of the Revolution in Military Affairs (Final report), Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 15 July 1994. NTIS Accession Number: AD-A283 587/4/XAB

Cooper, Pat

Information Warfare Sparks Security Affairs Revolution, Defense News, Vol. 10, 12-18 June 1995, pp. 1, 66.

Cooper, Pat

C3I, data become battlefield targets, Defense News, Vol. 10, no. 48 (December 4-10, 1995), pp. 8, 42.

Cooper, Pat

DOD Directive Links Info War Intelligence, Operations: Updated Policy Will Provide Clearer Picture of Roles, Defense News, Vol. 11 (October 1996), p. 84.

Cooper, Pat and Jason Glashow.

New Army Doctrine Shaped by Info Warfare, Army Times, 15 January 1996, p. 11.

Cooper, Pat, and Holzer, Robert.

America Lacks Reaction Plan for Info War, Defense News, Vol. 10, no. 39 (2-8 October 1995), p. 3.

Cramer, Myron L.

Command and Control Warfare: OODA Loop Countermeasures, presentation made to 33rd Annual AOC International Electronic Warfare Technical Symposium and Convention, October 1996. Documentation available [via FTP] from the Georgia Tech Research Institute (in MS Word 6.0 format / Binhex compressed) at:

Cramer, Myron L.

Air Force Low Observables Strategic Vision Assessment: An Information Warfare Context. Presentation materials (venue of presentation not given) of December 1996. Documentation available [via FTP] from the Georgia Tech Research Institute (in MS Word 6.0 format / Stuffit format) at:

NOTE: A .zip version of this file is available at:

There is some overlap between the material in this presentation set and that found in the "OODA Loop Countermeasures" set. This set expands upon IW from the perspective of C2W (Command and Control Warfare) and outlines the context for C2W thinking in post-Desert Storm US defense circles.

Cramer, Myron L.

Economic Espionage: An Information Warfare Perspective.

There are two items available under this title:

A paper included in the documentation for Information Security & Information Warfare, presentation given to the Atlanta Chapter of AFCEA, Atlanta, Georgia, August 22, 1996.

Format: MS Word 6.0 file, BinHex compressed.

Slides presented to a gathering on the subject "The Economic Espionage Act of 1996: The Impact of Global Competitive Intelligence for Business", Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP), February 24-25, 1997.

Format: MS PowerPoint file, BinHex compressed.

These 2 items are downloadable [via FTP] as a set from:

These presentation documents contain essentially the same material found in Cramer's 1997 working paper (cited herein).

Cramer, Myron L.

Information Warfare: A consequence of the Information Revolution. 1997 working paper available [via FTP] from the Georgia Tech Research Institute (in MS Word 6.0 format / Binhex compressed) at:

This is a nice little introduction to basic IW issues and themes. Of particular interest is Cramer's division of IW into a "mix" of five key activities: information collection, information protection, information denial, information management, and information transport.

Crawford, George A. (Capt.)

New Roles for Information Systems in Military Operations, Air Chronicles, 1996. Available via WWW at:

Czerwinski, Thomas J.

The Third Wave: What the Tofflers Never Told You. Washington D.C.: National Defense University Institute for National Strategic Studies Number 72, April 1996. Available via WWW at:

This is a thoughtful and insightful review and critique of the Tofflers' 'Third Wave' paradigm -- much more to the point than Dinardo & Hughes' relatively pedantic criticism.

Davis, Norman C. Maj USMC.

An Information-Based Revolution in Military Affairs. Strategic Review, Vol. XXIV, no. 1 (Winter 1996), pp.43-53.

de Arcangelis, Mario

Electronic Warfare from the Battle of Tsushima to the Falklands and Lebanon Conflicts , Poole: Blandford Press, 1985.

Defense Issues

Vol. 10, no. 18. Building an Air Force for the next century. Remarks prepared for delivery by Sheila E. Widnall, secretary of the Air Force, and Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman, Air Force chief of staff, to the Air Force Association Convention, Orlando, Fla., Feb. 23, 1995. Available via WWW at:

Defense Science Board

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare - Defense (IW-D), Washington DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, November 1996.

This is a massive report on the prospects of IW for American security and an overview of measures which may be taken toward providing defense against the identified vulnerabilities. Includes large appendices and bibliography. The entire report is available online at:

De Landa, Manuel

War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, New York: Zone Books, 1991.

De Landa primarily addresses the prospects for greater 'intelligence' and 'autonomy' built into the machines of warfare (cf. Arnett, 1992). This particular slant on the military information revolution is rarely encountered in literature on IW, but it is an important aspect of how computers can be exploited. NOTE: On multiple occasions (in print) I've seen the author cited as 'Miguel' De Landa.


Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari

Nomadology: the War Machine, New York: Semiotext(e), 1986.

Deleuze and Guattari (separately and in tandem) are among the most obtuse of the French writers graced with the appellation 'post modern philosophers'. Hidden among this genre's typically convoluted prose and the unavoidable debris of a translation from the French are some very cogent points about signification and power.


Denning, D.E.

The United States vs. Craig Neidorf: A Debate on Electronic Publishing Constitutional Rights and Hacking, Communications of the ACM, March, 1991. Available via WWW at:

An analysis of the issues surrounding the dissemination of information which could serve to support intrusions.

Denning, Dorothy E. and Peter J. (Eds.)

Internet Besieged : Countering Cyberspace Scofflaws, New York: Addison Wesley, 1997.

A massive compendium of expert articles covering the affordances of a networked world, privacy, security, cryptography, and secure electronic commerce.


Der Derian, James

Antidiplomacy: Spies, Terror, Speed and War, Cambridge MA: Blackwell, 1992.

Der Derian's book is more or less a post-structuralist analysis of the sociology of warfare, concentrating on intelligence, temporal leverage, and the absorption of militaristic activities into activities other than conventional war. Of all the non-military literature cited here, I recommend this book the most strongly.

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Der Derian, James

Speed pollution, WIRED Magazine, May 1996.

An interview with Paul Virilio, with particular foci on the relationships between media, technology, and warfare. Available via WWW at:

Derenzo, Evan G., and Richard Szafranski

Fooling Mother Nature: An Ethical Analysis of and Recommendations for Oversight of Human-Performance Enhancements in the Armed Forces, Airpower Journal, Summer 1997. Available via WWW at:

Discusses the possibility of technology-enhanced human performance as a component of the RMA.

Deutch, John M. (Director, CIA)

Foreign Information Warfare Programs and Capabilities, transcript of Congressional testimony from 25 June 1996. Available via WWW at:

Devost, Matthew G.

The Digital Threat: United States National Security and Computers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the New England Political Science Association, Salem, MA, April 22-23, 1994. Available via WWW at:

Devost, Matthew G.

Political Aspects of Class III Information Warfare: Global Conflict and Terrorism. Presentation to the Second International Conference on Information Warfare (Montreal, 18-19 January 1995). Text available via WWW at:

Devost, Matthew G.

National Security in the Information Age,Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate College of The University of Vermont In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts Specializing in Political Science, May, 1995. Available via WWW at:

Devost, Matthew G., Brian K. Houghton, and Neal A. Pollard

Information Terrorism: Can You Trust Your Toaster? Paper submitted to National Defense University's Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare competition, 1997. Available via WWW at:

Diffie, Whitfield, and Susan Landau

Privacy on the Line : The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998.


DiNardo, R. L., and D. J. Hughes

Some cautionary thoughts on information warfare, Airpower Journal, Winter 1995, pp. 1-10.

Two military historians take aim at the Tofflers (easy pickings...) and display generally unfocussed incredulity at the thematic cliches of the RMA and IW. Unfortunately, the article gives the impression these authors are more concerned with preserving their preferred standard of historical scholarship than addressing the transformations whose discussion is the subject of their wrath. Text available via WWW at:

Dishong, D. J.

Studying the Effect of Information Warfare on C2 Decision Making (Master's thesis), Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School master's thesis, June 1994. NTIS Accession Number: AD-A283 639/3/XAB

Drake, William J. (ed.)

New Information Infrastructure: Strategies for U. S. Policy, New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1995.

This book does not really treat the military implications of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), but its contributions on telecommunications and economic / political ramifications are good.


Dubik, James M., and Gordon R. Sullivan

War in the Information Age . AUSA Institute of Land Warfare, Landpower Essay Series, no. 94-4 (May 1994).

Dunlap, Charles J.

How We Lost the High Tech War of 2007, The Weekly Standard, 29 January 1996.

This is a speculative little horror story concerning the ability of a determined state (obviously modeled on Iran) to best the U.S. using a variety of IW techniques ranging from direct hacker attacks to shock-amplified media manipulation. A tidy little fable which illustrates the potential of a cogent and canny IW campaign.

Dunnigan, James F.

Digital Soldiers: The Evolution of High Tech Weaponry and Tomorrow's Brave New Battlefield. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.


Ellis, John

The Social History of the Machine Gun, New York: Pantheon Books, 1975. Paperback edition published by Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

This modest little book is perhaps the best example of a scholarly case study on a weapon. It's a wonderfully interesting read, and many of the points Ellis brings out are of general relevance to military adoption of technologies.


Ellul, Jacques

Propaganda : The Formation of Men's Attitudes, New York: Random House, 1973.

This is a classic text on propaganda in general. Even after a quarter century, there is hardly any other volume better recommended for an overview of the subject.


Ely, Robert

Information Warfare, Leading Edge, March 1995, p. 4.

Emmett, Peter C.

Software warfare: The militarization of logic, Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1994, pp. 84-90.

Emmett, Peter C.

Information Mania--a New Manifestation of Gulf War Syndrome? RUSI Journal, Vol. 141 (February 1996), pp. 19-26.

Everett, Charles B., Moss Dewindt, and Shane McDade

The Silicon Spear: An Assessment Of Information Based Warfare (IBW) And U.S. National Security, essay submitted to National Defense University's Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare competition, 1997. Available via WWW at:

Fast, William R. (Lt. Col.)

Knowledge Strategies: Balancing Ends, Ways, and Means in the Information Age, essay submitted to National Defense University's Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare competition, 1997. Available via WWW at:

ABSTRACT: Information age technologies are changing values and national interests, both of which drive the formulation of national security strategy. The strategy equals ends plus ways plus means paradigm must change. Information age knowledge strategy seeks the ends of cooperative and dynamic competition, uses the ways of network node control and organizational adaptation, and requires the resource means of valued information enhanced by experience in exploiting that information. A successful information age security strategy requires that we balance the ends, ways, and means of knowledge strategies. Whether we use the political, economic, military, or informational elements of national power, we serve our strategic ends best when we cooperate to shape robust information networks that promote dynamic competition and enhance mutual performance both in the public and private sectors. Further, we must control network nodes and communications links and secure our information resources. The security and integrity of our cyberspace must be considered an important, if not vital national interest.

Felker, Ed.

Information Warfare: A View of the Future. A Common Perspective. Joint Warfighting Center Newsletter, Vol. 3, no. 2 (September 1995), pp. 17-18.

FitzGerald, Mary C.

The Russian Image of Future War, Comparative Strategy, Vol. 13 (April-June 1994), pp. 167-168.

FitzGerald, Mary C.

Russian Views on Information Warfare, Army, Vol. 44, No. 5 (May 1994), pp. 57-60.

FitzGerald, Mary C.

The Russian Military's Strategy for `Sixth Generation' Warfare, Orbis, Summer 1994, pp. 457-476.

Fitzsimonds, James R., and Comdr Jan M. Van Tol

Revolutions in Military Affairs, Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1994, pp. 24-25.

Fitzsimonds, James R.

The Coming Military Revolution: Opportunities and Risks, Parameters , Vol. 25, Summer 1995, pp. 30-36.

Fogleman, Ronald, R. (Gen., USAF Chief of Staff)

Information Operations: The Fifth Dimension of Warfare, Defense Issues, Vol. 10, no. 47 (25 April 1995), pp. 1-3. Available via WWW at: defenselink/pubs/di-index.html

Fowler, Bruce W., and Donald R. Peterson

Induced Fragility in Information Age Warfare, OR/MS Today, Vol. 24, no. 2 (April 1997). Available via WWW at:

Fowler, Charles A., and Robert f. Nesbit

Tactical Deception in Air-Land Warfare, Journal of Electronic Defense, June 1995.

Franks, Frederick M., Jr.

Winning the Information War" Vital Speeches of the Day 60 (May 15, 1994): 453-458.

Fredericks, Brian (Col.)

Information Warfare: The Organizational Dimension Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, essay submitted to National Defense University's Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare competition, 1997. Available via WWW at:

Fredericks, Brian (Col.)

Information Warfare at the Crossroads, Joint Force Quarterly, Summer 1997. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

Freedman, David H., and Charles C. Mann

At Large : The Strange Case of the World's Biggest Internet Invasion, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

"In this nonfiction study that takes on elements of fiction, a cracker (the proper term for an intruder who successfully hacks into a system) disrupts the computer network at Portland State University's electrical engineering department. Using a modem and home computer, the cracker, known first as the Phantom Dialer and later as Infomaster, used password software and Trojan horses (modified programs with unpleasant surprises lurking inside) to break into the Portland State system and use it as a springboard to access hundreds of other systems nationwide. ... The cracker, a frail, antisocial young man who rarely ventured outside his room, had earlier been committed to the Oregon State Hospital and diagnosed with schizophrenia. This complicated tale of one cracker's insane persistence makes the reader cringe at the potential for chaos in cyberspace."

(American Library Association Booklist)


Garigue, Robert

On Strategy, Decisions and the Evolution of Information Systems. Technical Document. DSIS DND Government of Canada, 1992.

Garigue, Robert

Information Warfare - Theory and Concepts, Ottawa: Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister - Defence Information Services, DND, Goverment of Canada Report, 1995.

Garigue, Robert

Information Warfare: Developing a conceptual framework. A discussion paper available via WWW (Microsoft Word document compressed in .zip format) at:

Also available (in a wider range of formats) at:

Garigue, Robert

Requirements for Future Command and Control Information Systems: One view on operating in an information and decision space. Essay / working paper available via WWW at:

Gattiker, Urs E., and Helen Kelley

Techno-crime and terror against tomorrow's organization: What about cyberpunks? Centre for Technology Studies, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 Canada. White paper available via WWW at:

An interesting essay on the social psychology of the cyberspace 'criminal element'.

Gattuso, Joseph A., Jr.

Warfare Theory, Naval War College Review, Autumn 1996, pp. 112-23. Available via WWW at:

A review and comparison of attrition theory vs. maneuver theory (including Boyd's OODA Loops), as well as some commentary on how these alternatives relate to the RMA and other emergent military factors.

Gelman, Robert B. Gelman, McCandlish, Stanton

Protecting Yourself Online : The Definitive Resource on Safety, Freedom, and Privacy in Cyberspace, Electronic Frontier Foundation / Harper Collins, 1998.

Sponsored by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), this is a remarkably straightforward, authoritative, and hype-less book on the downside of operating in cyberspace. A quite good general introduction / caution to concerned newcomers and the broad non-technical audience.


General Accounting Office (GAO)

Information Security: Computer Attacks at Department of Defense Pose Increasing Risks, Report GAO/AIMD-96-84 of 05/22/96. Available via WWW at:

A GAO summary (developed for presentation to Congress) on the basic problems of cyberspace security, with particular attention to (then-recent) intrusion attempts against DOD systems.

Gibson, William

Neuromancer, New York: Ace Books, 1984.

This science fiction novel is typically hailed as the cyberpunk's Bible. Gibson (who ironically knew almost nothing of computers at the time...) created the vision of 'cyberspace' as a non-physical landscape with tactical and strategic affordances. On top of everything else, it's well-written fiction.


Giles, Lionel (translator)

Sun Tzu on the Art of War, London: Luzac & Co., 1910.

This is an older (and not well-regarded) translation of Sun Tzu's classic Art of War . This translation is (apparently) in the public domain, and the text can be found in a number of places on the Internet / WWW.

See: Sun Tzu

Goldstein, Frank L., and Benjamin F. Findley (eds.)

Psychological Operations : Principles and Case Studies, Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 1996.


Goodman, S. E.

War, Information Technologies, and International Asymmetries, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 39, no. 12 (December 1996), pp. 11-15.

A nice summary essay on the global status of nations' expectations for, and investments in, information warfare technologies.

Gompert, David C.

Keeping information warfare in perspective, Rand Research Review, Fall 1995. Available via WWW at:

Gourley, Robert D. (Lt. Cmdr.)

The Devil Is in the Details: Seven ways to cut through the fog of Information Warfare, Naval Institute Proceedings, September 1997, Volume 123/6/1,135.

Grafinkel, Simson L.

The Manchurian Printer, The Boston Sunday Globe, March 5, 1995, Focus Section, Page 83.

Greenberg, Lawrence T., Goodman, Seymour E., and Kevin J. Soo Hoo

Information Warfare and International Law, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, 1997. Additional information about the book can be found at:


Grier, Peter

Information Warfare, Air Force Magazine, March 1995.

Grier, Peter.

New World Vistas, Air Force Magazine, Vol. 79, no. 3 (March 1996), pp. 20-25.

Griffith, S. B.

Introduction to Sun Tzu (1963), pp. 1-56.

This is the introduction to the currently 'canonical' translation of The Art of War . It is only available in print format.

Grossman, Wendy, M.

Net.Wars, New York: New York University Press, 1997.

"Here at last is a sensible, thought-provoking and informative book about the complexity and challenges of the Net. Most books are too enthusiastic about the technology, too American, too Utopian, too get-rich-quick--or just out of date. In Net Wars we have a good, profoundly challenging book, which rises above parochialism. It is full of insights--as much into bulletin boards as sexual stereotyping, rights to free speech and establishing global copyright. Everyone, particularly police, lawyers, teachers, parents and scientists, can usefully read this book and consider what the Net really means for us all."

(Harold Thimbleby, New Scientist)


Guilbault, R. G.

Information Empowerment: The Key Force Multiplier. Defense & Security Electronics, Vol. 28, no. 1 (January 1996), pp. 10-14.

Guisnel, Jean

Cyberwars : Espionage on the Internet, New York: Plenum Press, 1997.

An extended examination of surveillance and privacy issues.


Haeni, Reto

An Introduction To Information Warfare, Washington DC: School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, George Washington University, December 1995. Available via WWW at:

Hafner, Katie, and John Markoff

Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. (Updated / revised paperback edition issued by Touchstone Books, June 1995).

One of the first in-depth examinations of the 'cracker' subculture, updated into a second edition in 1995. Much of the material still pertains to hackers (particularly German hackers) of the 1980's, but the book remains a nice introduction to the purported 'subculture' which these folks may represent.


Hammond, Grant T.

Paradoxes of war, Joint Forces Quarterly, Spring 1994, pp. 7-16.

Handel, Michael I.

Sun Tzu and Clausewitz Compared, Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1991.

Hardy, Stephen M.

Should We Fear the Byte Bomb. Journal of Electronic Defense, Vol. 19, no. 1 (January 1996), pp. 42-46.

Harknett, Richard J.

Information Warfare and Deterrence. Parameters, Vol. 26 (Autumn 1996), pp. 93-107.

Harley, Jeffrey A.

Information, Technology, and the Center of Gravity, Naval War College Review, Winter 1997, pp. 66-87. Available via WWW at:

This is a nice article exploring the relationships among IW, the RMA, and the longstanding notion of "center of gravity" in military theory.

Harris, Blake

Digital Strategies: The Rise of the Information Warrior, Book in preparation. Selected chapters / sections available via WWW at:

Hayes, Richard E., and Gary Wheatley

Information Warfare and Deterrence, National Defense University Institute for National Strategic Studies report Number 87, October 1996. Available via WWW at:

Herskovitz, Don

And the Compass Spun Round and Round, Cover story on navigation warfare, Journal of Electronic Defense, Vol. 20, no. 5 (May 1997), pp. 35-39; 65.

A summary overview on the prospect of navigation warfare (NAVWAR) -- specifically mischief directed toward the Global Positioning System (GPS) network.

Hewish, Mark

Fishing in the Data Stream - Netting Information is the Trick, International Defense Review , Vol 27 (July 1994 issue); Soulsdon UK: Janes Information Group, p. 51.

Hill, Martin R.

It Is Time to Get on with Information Warfare, Defense Intelligence Journal, Vol. 5 (Spring 1996), pp. 25-41.

Howard, John D.

An Analysis Of Security Incidents On The Internet, 1989 - 1995, Pittsburgh PA: Carnegie Mellon University (doctoral dissertation in Engineering & Public Policy), April 1997. Available via WWW at:

This dissertation represents one of the best online summations of the hard facts on computer / information security breaches.

Excerpt(s) from the Abstract:

This research analyzed trends in Internet security through an investigation of 4,299 security-related incidents on the Internet reported to the CERTŪ Coordination Center (CERTŪ/CC) from 1989 to 1995. Prior to this research, our knowledge of security problems on the Internet was limited and primarily anecdotal. This information could not be effectively used to determine what government policies and programs should be, or to determine the effectiveness of current policies and programs. This research accomplished the following: 1) development of a taxonomy for the classification of Internet attacks and incidents, 2) organization, classification, and analysis of incident records available at the CERTŪ/CC, and 3) development of recommendations to improve Internet security, and to gather and distribute information about Internet security.

Hruska, Jan

Computer Viruses and Anti-Virus Warfare, Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.


Hurst, Gerald R. (Maj.)

Taking Down Telecommunications, Thesis document, Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, September 1994.

The I-Bomb

BBC documentary discussion, produced by Kate O'Sullivan, 1995.

Transcript available via WWW at:

Icove, David, Karl Seger, and William VonStorch

Computer Crime: A Crimefighter's Handbook. Sebastopal, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1995.


Information Warfare and the Canadian Forces

This set of analysis and policy documents is a good overview of IW issues and an introduction to the manner in which Canada's Department of National Defense seeks to address them. There are multiple segments of this document set, available in PDF (i.e., Adobe Acrobat) format at:

Ivefors, Gunilla

Information Warfare: Defeat the enemy before battle - a warfare revolution in the 21 st century ?
Web page. Linköping (Sweden): Linköping University MDA Group, 1996.

Jackall, Robert (ed.)

Propaganda (Main Trends of the Modern World), New York: New York University Press, 1995.

"Classic and modern essays trace the origins, ethos, and workings of modern propaganda and explore the social and institutional groundwork of propaganda. They examine propaganda from the Great War to the Cold War, focusing on organizations such as the Committee on Public Information and the Nazi propaganda machine, and Hollywood propaganda films during WWII. They discuss bureaucratic propaganda, advertising, public relations, and politics and language in contemporary society." (Booknews)


James, Shawn D. (Lt., USN)

Information Warfare: A Phenomenon, an Innovation, or a New Paradigm?, Monterey CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 24 March 1995. Available via WWW at:

Jane's Information Group

U.S. Information Warfare: Jane's Special Report 1997-1998, London, Jane's, 1998.

This is the most extensive (and, hence, expensive) compendium on IW and IW-related thinking, planning, and activity within the US defense establishment. An invaluable resource for understanding and tracking the often labyrinthine developments within DOD with respect to infrastructure, network, and other 'cyber' operations.


Jensen, Owen E. (Col.)

Information warfare: Principles of third-wave war, Airpower Journal, Winter 1994, pp. 35-43. Available via WWW at:

Jensen, Richard M.

Information War Power : Lessons from Air Power, Cambridge, MA: Program on Information Resources Policy, Harvard University, Center for Information Policy Research, 1997.

Johnson, Craig L.

"Information Warfare - Not a Paper War", Special Report, Journal of Electronic Defense, August 1994, pp.55-58.

Johnson, Douglas

The Impact of Media on National Security Decison Making, Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 1994.

An analysis of the increasing degree to which military planning has to take the media into account -- as an exploitable resource, a potential avenue of vulnerability, and a complicating factor in maintaining popular support.

Johnson, Frederick C and Floyd C. Painter

The Integration of Warfare Support Functions, Technology Analysis, Warfare Integration, C31, 1988, pp.176-182

Johnson, Stuart E., and Martin C. Libicki (eds)

Dominant Battlespace Knowledge: The Winning Edge, Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, October 1995. Available via WWW at:

It's a good thing this book is available via WWW, because as a print artifact it's a relative waste. Most of the material was quite obviously recycled (often verbatim) from earlier writings (e.g., of Libicki and Admiral William Owens), unceremoniously slapped together on a microcomputer, and printed out. The two main mysteries about this book are (1) why the editors / authors decided their prior material on dominant battlespace awareness (DBA) needed to be rehashed under a new label, and (2) what they think distinguishes DBK from the earlier DBA. As was the case for the earlier term, they never bother to attempt a cohesive definition. Having said that, let me admit that some of the later articles in the book are not (apparently) recycling efforts and make some good points.

Joint Vision 2010

Joint Vision 2010 is a concrete conceptualization of how the U.S. military can exploit advanced technologies (especially information technologies) to meet the prospective challenges of 21st Century warfare. The Joint Vision 2010 documentation does not focus exclusively on IW, but the wide range of IW activities is well-represented in the discussion. This and other U.S. military WWW sites illustrate quite concretely how concern over IW (broadly defined) is affecting near-term and long-range military planning.

Journal of Infrastructural Warfare

An online information source operated by the Centre of Infrastructural Warfare Studies (CIWARS). Subscription required to access the Journal online.

Journal of Internet Security

Computer Security Canada, Inc. (CSCI)
ISSN 1206-4890

An online journal on computer / information security issues.

Main Entry Point / Home Page:

Media Examples of Security Breaches

Kabay, M.E.

Prepare Yourself For Information Warfare. ComputerWorld, Vol. 29, no. 12 (March 20, 1995), pp. 2-7. This article is now available via WWW at:

Kahin, Brian, and Charless Nesson (Eds.)

Borders in Cyberspace : Information Policy and the Global Information Infrastructure, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1997.

A compilation from the Harvard Information Infrastructure Project.


Karnow, Curtis E.A.

Recombinant Culture: Crime In The Digital Network, paper presented at the Defcon II conference, Las Vegas NV, July 1994. Available via WWW at:

Kelly, Brian J.

Command and Control Basics Enhance Explosion of Information Technology, SIGNAL (AFCEA), March 1995.


Exploiting the Military-Technical Revolution, Strategic Review, Vol. 20, no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 23-30.

Kipp, Jacob W.

The Russian Military and the Revolution in Military Affairs: A Case of the Oracle of Delphi or Cassandra?, Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Military Studies Office, paper originally presented at: MORS Conference Annapolis, Maryland 6-8 June 1995. Available via WWW at:



Kirin, Stephen J.

Synchronization, Naval War College Review, Autumn 1996, pp. 7-22. Available via WWW at:


Secrets of a Super Hacker, San Francisco: Loompanics, 1994.

A controversial book when originally published, and now largely of historical interest. Many of the hacker 'tricks' described in this book are already obsolete / ineffective due to better security practices.


Konopatzke, Kurt (Lt, USAF)

Information Warfare: Same wine, different bottle?, CADRE Air Chronicles, October 1996. Available via WWW (HTML version) at:

This article is one of the few publications to critically examine 2 often-cited hypotheses in US IW discussions: (a) the advisability of establishing a distinct "information corps", and (b) the notion that IW operations are inherently suboptimal (or even irrelevant) when dealing with any adversary other than a Western-style industrial nation.

Kraus, George F. (Cmdr USN)

Information Warfare in 2015, Naval Institute Proceedings, August 1995.

Krepinevich, Andrew

The Military Technical Revolution: A Preliminary Assessment, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Office of Net Assessment, July 1992.

Krepinevich, Andrew

Cavalry to Computer: The Pattern of Military Revolutions, The National Interest, Fall 1994.

Kroker, Arthur, and Marilouise Kroker (Eds.)

Digital Delirium (Culturetexts), New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

A collection of essays from the decidedly non-technologically-addicted sector, providing a view of the oncoming Information Age as seen by postmodernist and other humanists.


Kuehl, Dan

The Ethics of Information Warfare and Statecraft. Essay available via WWW at:

Kuehl, Dan

Joint Information Warfare: An Information-Age Paradigm for Jointness, Washington DC: National Defense University Strategic Forum Number 105, March 1997. Available via WWW at:

Discusses how the prevailing notion of "jointness" among U.S. military services is too narrowly defined to address the scope of concerns in the information realm.

Kuehl, Dan

Defining Information PowerWashington DC: National Defense University Strategic Forum Number 115, June 1997. Available via WWW at:

Laqueur, Walter

Post-modern Terrorism, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, No.5 (September-October 1996), p. 35.

Lash, Scott, and John Urry

Economies of Signs and Space, London: SAGE, 1994.

"A novel account of social change that supplants conventional understandings of `society' and presents a sociology that takes as its main unit of analysis flows through time and across space." Although it doesn't specifically address IW per se, this book is an interesting intersection of 'third-wave' or 'postmodern' orientation and relatively concrete sociological analysis. Insofar as this analysis emphasizes speed and temporality issues, it is considerably more accessible than (e.g.) Virilio's work.

Lawrence, R. E., and A. J. Ross.

Equities: Dissemination vs. Protection: Information Warfare Workshop Results. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995), 566-568.

Lee, A. M., and E. B. Lee

The Fine Art of Propaganda , New York: Institute for Propaganda Analysis / Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939.

Lee, James G. (Maj)

Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance , Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press (Thesis publication), October 1994.

Leonhard, Robert

The Art of Manuever: Maneuver Warfare Theory and Air Land Battle , Novato CA: Presidio Press, 1991. Paperback edition, 1995.

Although this book is primarily about maneuver warfare in the context of ground forces, it contains substantial discussion of (e.g.) command and control issues which impinge directly on the notion of information warfare as the 'third wave warform'.


Leonhard, Robert R.

Fighting by Minutes: Time and the Art of War , Westport CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

This is the only full-length book I've found on the temporal aspects of warfare. Although Leonhard never writes of IW per se, much of his discussion is very pertinent to the notions of temporal leverage (e.g., the OODA Loop) which pervade the literature of IW.


Lewis, Brian C.

Information Warfare and the Intelligence Community, a contribution to Cheng, Edward, and Diane C. Snyder (eds.) The Final Report of the Snyder Commission, Woodrow Wilson School Policy Conference 401a: Intelligence Reform in the Post-Cold War Era, Princeton NJ: The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton Unversity, January 1997. Available via WWW at:

Libicki, Martin C.

What is information warfare? National Defense University Strategic Forum Report Number 28, May 1995. Available via WWW at:

http:/ /

I highly recommend this work as an introduction to IW. It circumscribes the range of military activities which reasonably fall under the rubric of IW. However, it does not analyze this sample set into a coherent definition of what IW is all about. Consider it a topical survey. Having said that, it must be pointed out that this is one of the 'top 5' most-cited references on IW issues and definitions, making it a key component of the well-stocked IW literature base.

Libicki, Martin C.

The Mesh and the Net: Speculations on Armed Conflict in a Time of Free Silicon. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, McNair Paper no. 28, March 1994. Available via WWW at:

Libicki, Martin C.

Dominant Battlefield Awareness and its Consequences. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995), pp. 550-559.

Libicki, Martin C.

Information and Nuclear RMAs Compared. Washington D.C.: National Defense University Institute for National Strategic Studies report Number 82, July 1996. Available via WWW at:

Libicki appraises the similarities between the revolutionary military impacts of nuclear weapons and information technology.

Libicki, Martin C.

Technology and Warfare, Chapter IV in Cronin, Patrick M. (ed.), 2015: Power and Progress, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, July 1996. Available via WWW at:

Libicki, Martin C.

Defending Cyberspace and Other Metaphors, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, February 1997. Available via WWW at:

This more recent book represents an update of Libicki's prior theorization on IW with a focus on defensive issues.

Libicki, Martin C.

Information Dominance, Washington DC: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies Strategic Forum Number 132, November 1997. Available via WWW at:

Libicki, Martin C., and James A. Hazlett

Do We Need an Information Corps? Joint Forces Quarterly 1 (Autumn 1993), pp. 88-97.

Loader, Brian (Ed.)

The Governance of Cyberspace : Politics, Technology and Global Restructuring, London: Routledge, 1997.


Ludlow, Peter, Mike Godwin and Lloyd Blankenship

High Noon on the Electronic Frontier : Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1996.

A collection of over thirty essays on the sociopolitical issues which must be sorted out as we move into the networked future.

[ ACCESS VIA AMAZON (Hardcover) ]

[ ACCESS VIA AMAZON (Paperback) ]

Lum, Zachary A.

Linking the senses, Journal of Electronic Defense, August 1994, pp.33-38.

Lunt, Teresa F.

A survey of intrusion detection techniques, Computers and Security, 12(1993), pp. 405-418.

MacArthur, John R.

Second Front : Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War, Hill & Wang, 1992.

A detailed account of how information management played a key role in Desert Storm, in terms of how the Pentagon targeted the home front as well as the adversary.


Magsig, Daniel E.

Information Warfare in the Information Age, Washington DC: George Washington University, December 7, 1995. Available via WWW at:

Mahnken, Thomas G.

War in the Information Age, Joint Force Quarterly, Winter 1995/1996. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

Mann, Edward (Col.)

Desert Storm: The first information war?, Airpower Journal, Winter 1994, pp. 4-14. Available via WWW at:

This paper and Campen's book The First Information War are the best starting places for re-evaluating Desert Storm in terms of its 'third-wave' features.

Mazarr, M. J., et al.

The Military Technical Revolution: A Structural Framework, Final Report of the CSIS Study Group on the MTR, Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies Panel Report, 63 pp., 1993. ISBN 0-89206-218-5.

Mazarr, M. J.

The Revolution in Military Affairs: A Framework for Defense Planning. Carlisle PA: Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, Report of June 1994. Text available via WWW through entry point at:

McKenzie, Kenneth, F, Jr.

Beyond Luddites and Magicians: Examining the MTR, Parameters, Vol. 25, Summer 1995, pp. 15-21.

McKitrick, Jeffrey, Blackwell, James, Littlepage, Fred, Kraus, George, Blanchfield, Richard, and Dale Hill

The Revolution in Military Affairs, Chapter 3 in the Air Chronicles compilation on Battlefield of the Future , March 1996. Available via WWW at:

McLaurin, Ron

Military Propaganda : Psychological Warfare and Operations, Praeger, 1982.


McLendon, James W. (Col, USAF)

Information Warfare: Impacts and Concerns, Chapter 7 in the Air Chronicles compilation on Battlefield of the Future , March 1996. Available via WWW at:

Metz, Steven, and Frederick M. Downey

Centers of gravity and strategy planning, Military Review, April 1988, p. 30.

Metz, Steven

A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare, Parameters, Vol. 24, no. 4 (Winter 1994/95), pp. 126-132.

Metz addresses the recent trendy critiques of Clausewitz with reference to three of the main references: the Tofflers' War and Anti-War, van Creveld's The Transformation of War, and Keegan's A History of Warfare. It's good to see someone willing to discuss alternatives other than the Tofflers, and it's especially good to see someone bring Keegan into the discussion.

Metz, Steven J., and James Kievit

The Revolution in Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War, Carlisle Barracks PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College Report DTIC AD-A283 836, 1994.

Metz, Steven, and Kievit, James.

Strategy and the Revolution in Military Affairs: From Theory to Policy. Carlisle Barracks PA: The Strategic Studies Institute, 1995.

Meyer, G. and Thomas, J.

The Baudy World of the Byte Bandit: A Postmodernist Interpretation of the Computer Underground, Dept. of Sociology, Northern Illinois University, March 1990. Available via WWW at:

A classic essay on the 'hacker underground' from the perspective of social interactivity and the sociality of the members. Still a good read after all these years.

Miller, John H.

Information Warfare: Issues and Perspectives, essay submitted to National Defense University's Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare competition, 1995. Available via WWW at:

Molander, Roger, Riddle, Andrew and Peter Wilson

Strategic Information Warfare -- A New Face of War, Santa Monica CA: RAND Corporation, 1995. Online version now available via WWW at:


Morris, Chris, Janet Morris, and Thomas Baines

Weapons of Mass Protection: Nonlethality, Information Warfare, and Airpower in the Age of Chaos, Airpower Journal, Spring 1995. Available via WWW at:

Morris, Chris

Information Warfare in the Age of Chaos: Preparing for 2020, DIANE Publishing, 1995.


Morton, Oliver

The information advantage, The Economist, June 10, 1995, pp. 5-20.

At the time of its issuance, this was by far the most cogent, intelligent, and informative IW assessment to be found in the popular press.

Munro, Neil

The Quick and the Dead: Electronic Combat and Modern Warfare, New York: MacMillan, 1991.


Munro, Neil

The Pentagon's New Nightmare: An Electronic Pearl Harbor, Washington Post, Sunday, July 16, 1995, Section C, p. 3. Available via WWW at:

Murray, Williamson

Thinking About Revolutions in Military Affairs, Joint Force Quarterly, Summer 1997.

An overview of the RMA and its place among the prior military-technical transformations of history. A nice companion reading to go along with Krepinevich's RMA retrospective. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

National Defense

Information Warriors Raze Enemy's Data Vital Chains, 1 March 1995.

Nelson, Andrew H., and John I. Alger

The Art of Information War, published by A. H. Nelson, 1995.

Nelson, Richard A.

A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States, Greenwood Publishing, 1996

Publisher's blurb:

The first of three volumes that will serve as a comprehensive and inclusive finding tool, this work defines propaganda in an uncertain postmodern information age. Linked to the U.S. Constitution, mass media, and business, the role propaganda plays must be understood in terms of an information-based economy. An extensive chronology of propaganda-related events, plus an A-Z guide defining hundreds of important terms (some ill-defined in context, such as "backdoor contact" and "spin doctor"), combine to meet an immediate need for an easy-to-use resource that not only credibly defines the field but stimulates new research.


Nielson, Robert E., and Charles B. Gaisson

Information - The Ultimate Weapon, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995), pp. 545-549.

Nitzberg, Sam

Conflict and the Computer: Information Warfare and Related Ethical Issues, 1997. Essay available via WWW at:

A general overview of the IW situation, particularly as it relates to 'hackers' and associated ethical issues.

Norris, Christopher

Uncritical Theory: Postmodernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf War, Amherst MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.

Norris skewers the French postmodernists (especially Baudrillard) for their misreading of the Gulf War, then goes on to a general criticism of the orientations which blinded them to the probability of its actual realization as a shooting war. This book is more properly seen as an indictment of the postmodernists rather than their prioritization of 'significations'. A secondary resource, but one full of interesting points.

O'Driscoll, M. and J. Krill

Cooperative Engagement Capability: Leading the Information Warfare Revolution, International Maritime Defence Exhibition & Conference'95, Vol. 2 , pp. 351-368.

Overill, Richard E.

Computer crime - an historical survey, Defence Systems International, Autumn 1997, pp.102-103. Available via WWW at:

Owens, William A. (Adm. USN)

JROC: Harnessing the Revolution in Military Affairs, Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1994.

Owens, William A. (Adm. USN)

The emerging system of systems, Naval Institute Proceedings, May 1995, pp. 35-39.

Admiral Owens has been preaching the notions of treating military forces as systems for some time. This is perhaps the most concise presentation of his basic ideas. It also includes a discussion of information dominance -- the earliest label for what has more recently been dubbed (with no discernible gain in precision...) dominant battlespace awareness (DBA) and/or dominant battlespace knowledge (DBK) .

Owens, William A. (Adm. USN)

The American Revolution in Military Affairs, Joint Force Quarterly, Winter 1995/1996. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

Patton, James H., Jr.

The New "RMA": It's Only Just Begun, Naval War College Review, Spring 1996, pp. 23-32.

Patton, David H.

Information Warfare: Towards a Better Understanding, draft paper available WWW at:

Payton, Gary D. (Col. USAF)

The Art of Intelligence, by the General, Airpower Journal, Winter 1993.

Perelman, Michael

Class Warfare in the Information Age, New York: St Martins Press, 1998.


Peters, Ralph

After the Revolution (in Military Affairs), Parameters , Vol. 25, Summer 1995, pp. 7-14.

Petersen, John

Info War--The Next Generation, U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1997 Volume 123/1/1,127 .

Peterson, A. Padgett

Tactical Computers Vulnerable to Malicious Software Attacks. SIGNAL 48 (November 1993), pp. 74-75.

Pizzo, Stephen

CyberWar! Is Information Warfare our next big Threat?, Web Review, August 8, 1996. Available via WWW at:

Powell, Colin L. (Gen.)

Information-age warriors, BYTE, July 1992, p. 370.

Power, Richard.

CSI Special Report on Information Warfare. Computer Security Journal, Vol. 11, No 2 (October 1995).

Power, Richard

Special report on information warfare: Part one: definition and scope, Weekly Security News, 13 October 1995. Available via WWW at:

Power, Richard

Special report on information warfare: part two: Where did information warfare originate?, Weekly Security News, 27 October 1995. Available via WWW at:

Power, Richard

Special report on information warfare:part three: Let's play a game, Weekly Security News, 3 November 3 1995. Available via WWW at:

Pratkanis, Anthony R.

Age of Propaganda : The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion, New York: W. H. Freeman, 1998.

A newly-published (and highly provocative) volume on persuasion in American society.


RAND Corporation

Information Warfare: A Two-Edged Sword, Rand Research Review, Vol 19:2 (Fall 1995), Information War and Cyberspace Security. Available via WWW at:

RAND Corporation

Related Reading - An IW Bibliography, Rand Research Review, Vol 19:2 (Fall 1995), Information War and Cyberspace Security. Available via WWW at:

RAND Corporation

Keeping Information Warfare in Perspective, Rand Research Review, Vol 19:2 (Fall 1995), Information War and Cyberspace Security. Available via WWW at:

RAND Corporation

The fly on the wall and the Jedi Knight, Research Brief (abstract) for Hundley, Richard O,. and Eugene C. Gritton, Future Technology-Driven Revolutions in Military Operations: Results of a Workshop, RAND Report DB-110-ARPA, 1995.

Available via WWW at:

Rathmell, Andrew

Netwar in the Gulf, Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, pp. 29-32.

Rathmell, Andrew

CyberWar: The Coming Threat? National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) Pointer: The Newsletter for Criminal Analysts within NCIS, Issue no. 2 (July 1997), p.1

Rathmell, Andrew

Cyber-Terrorism: The Shape of Future Conflict?, Royal United Service Institute Journal, October 1997, pp. 40-46. Available via WWW at:

Rathmell, Andrew, Overill,Richard, Valeri, Lorenzo, and John Gearson

The IW Threat from Sub-State Groups: an Interdisciplinary Approach, paper presented at the Third International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology, Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS), National Defense University (NDU) [Washington DC], June 17-20, 1997. Available via WWW at:

Reitlinger, Kurt C. (Maj. USA)

Command and Control for Third Wave Warfare, Army, February 1995.

Richardson, Doug.

Confounding the Enemy: The Black Art of Infowar. Jane's Defence '96 The World in Conflict, (January 1996), pp. 155-159.

Ritcheson, Philip L.

The Future of the Nation State, Military Review , Vol. LXXVI, no. 2 (March-April 1996). Available via WWW at:

Robinson, Clarence A., Jr.

Army Information Operations Protect Command and Control, SIGNAL, Vol. 50, no. 11 (July 1996), pp. 47-50.

Robinson, Clarence A., Jr. (authorship assumed from initials/byline, p. 54)

Rapid Technology Growth Spawns Land Information Warfare Activity, SIGNAL, Vol. 50, no. 11 (July 1996), pp. 51-54.

Robinson, Clarence A., Jr.

Information Warfare Demands Battlespace Visualization, SIGNAL, Vol. 51, no. 6 (February 1997), pp. 17-20.

Rohde, William E. (Commander, USN)

What is Info Warfare?, U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, February 1996 Volume 122/2/1,116.

Roman, Gregory A.

The Command Or Control Dilemma: When Technology and Organizational Orientation Collide, Chapter 5 in: Essays on Strategy XIV, Washington DC: National Defense University, 1997(?). Available via WWW at:

A document of the same title (and presumably containing the same text) is listed as a "Research Paper presented to Air Force 2025" at the Air University WWW site --

This 1996 version has the following Executive Summary:

"In an information-age military, the proper organizational orientation may no longer be one of command and control, but command or control. Historically, the military's response to new information technology has always been greater centralized control. Unfortunately, greater centralized control is the exact opposite of what is desired to maximize the benefits of information technology. As the tempo of operations increases, so does the demand for faster decision making. Information technology, however, is creating a faster information- gathering cycle, but not a correspondingly faster decision-making cycle. This creates an imbalance that can only be corrected by the proper organizational orientation which takes full advantage of information. The information-age military needs the shared information-gathering advantages of a networked organization with the decentralized decision-making advantages of a flattened hierarchical organization. Failure to adapt to a new organizational orientation of decentralized control may result in a US military unable to operate at the increased tempo of future warfare.

Rona, Thomas P.

Weapon systems and information war, Seattle: Boeing Aerospace Co. research report, July 1976.

This publication is now primarily of historical interest. It is the earliest usage I can find of the term "information war(fare)".

Rona, Thomas P.

Information Warfare: An Age Old Concept with New Insights, Defense Intelligence Journal, Vol. 5 (Spring 1996), pp. 53-67.

Ronfelt, David

Cyberocracy, Cyberspace, and Cyberology: Political Effects of the Information Revolution, Santa Monica CA: RAND Corporation report P-7745, 1991. A revised version of this report (retitled "Cyberocracy is Coming") is available via WWW at:

Roos, John G.

Info Tech Info Power, Armed Forces Journal International, June 1994, pp.31-36.

Rosteck, Tanja S.

Computer Hackers: Rebels With a Cause Montreal: Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Honours paper, 1994. Available via WWW at:

A nice overview of the 'hacker community' from the perspective of sociology.

Rota, Dane L.

Combat Decision Making in 'Operations Other Than War', Military Review , Vol. LXXVI, no. 2 (March-April 1996). Available via WWW at:

Ryan, Donald E., Jr. (Lt. Col.)

Implications of information-based warfare, Joint Forces Quarterly, Autumn/Winter 1994-95, pp. 114-116.

SAIC (Science Application International Corporation)

Planning Considerations for Defensive Information Warfare - Information Assurance, Technical report of 16 December 1993, 61 pages.

SAIC (Science Application International Corporation) Telecommunications and Networking System Operation

Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy And Organizational Considerations For Assurance, Research report for the Chief, Information Warfare Division (J6K), C4 Systems Directorate, Joint Staff, the Pentagon, 4 July 1995.

Sakkas, P. E.

Espionage and Sabotage in the Computer World, International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, Vol.5 No.2 (Summer 1995), pp. 162-171.

Schneider, James J.

Black Lights: Chaos, Complexity, and the Promise of Information Warfare Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1997. Available (as a PDF file) via WWW at:

Schneier, Bruce, and David Banisar (Eds.)

The Electronic Privacy Papers : Documents on the Battle for Privacy in the Age of Surveillance, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.


Schutzer, D.

Concepts and Thoughts Concerning Control Stategy for Conducting Information Warfare, Cambridge MA: MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems Report LIDS R1982, No. 1267, 1982.

This report is primarily of historical interest -- it demonstrates that attention to the military significance of data communications dates back farther than the current wave of hype.

Schwartau, Winn

Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic Superhighway , New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1994. Second edition, 1996.

This is the most widely-read and widely-cited book on information warfare (in its general sense). As such, this book must be considered part of the 'core literature' on the subject.


Schwartzstein, Stuart J. D. (Ed.)

The Information Revolution and National Security : Dimensions and Directions (Significant Issues Series, Vol 18, No 3), Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1997.


Scott, William B.

Information Warfare' Demands New Approach, Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 142, No. 11 (March 13, 1995), p. 85.

Selden, Zachary

INFORMATION SECURITY: The Implications of Cyberwar for National Security and Business. Essay of November, 1996 available via WWW at:

Shafer, Melvin E.

Attacking Through the MIST, Military Review , Vol. LXXVI, no. 2 (March-April 1996). Available via WWW at:

Shukman, David

The Sorcerer's Challenge: Fears and Hopes for the Weapons of the Next Millenium, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1995.

Shukman, David

Tomorrow's War : The Threat of High-Technology Weapons, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996.


SIGNAL (journal)

Fairfax VA: Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA).

SIGNAL is a good monthly source for information and news on military applications of electronics, communications, and computing technology. The journal's home page (which includes archived articles) can be accessed via WWW at:


Command, Control Simulation Develops Information Warriors, SIGNAL, Vol. 51, no. 6 (February 1997), pp. 25-28.

Simpkin, Richard

Race to the Swift: Thoughts on 21st Century Warfare ; London: Brassey's,1985.


Simpson, James, M. (Major USAF)

Doing Things the Same or Differently: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Conflict, Air University Review, Vol. 31, no. 4 (May-June 1980), pp. 88-93.

Singer, Abe, and Scott Rowell

Information Warfare: An Old Operational Concept With New Implications, National Defense University Strategic Forum Number 99, December 1996. Available via WWW at:

Discusses IW from the perspective of warfare defined as the linked tasks of delivering "energy" (physical force) and communicating information (cf. Norman Dixon's On the Psychology of Military Incompetence).

Slatalla, Michele, and Joshua Quittner

Masters of Deception : The Gang That Ruled Cyberspace, New York: Harper (Perennial Library), 1996.

An in-depth review of the Masters of Deception (MoD) -- one of the most well-known 'hacker gangs' in the USA.


Smith, Edward A., Jr.

The Navy RMA War Game Series: April 1995-November 1996, Naval War College Review, Autumn 1997, pp. 17-31. Available via WWW at:

An interesting report on U.S. Navy war gaming with respect to RMA-oriented capabilities (especially information technologies).

Smith, Kevin B. (Capt., USA)

Combat Information Flow, Military Review, April 1989.

Spafford, Eugene H.

The Internet Worm program: An analysis, ACM Computer Communication Review; 19(1) (January 1989), pp. 17-57.

Starr, Stuart H., and Dale K. Pace

Developing the Intellectual Tools Needed by the Information Warfare Community, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995), pp. 577-586.

Stein, Fred P.

Observations on the Emergence of Network Centric Warfare, Washington DC: C4ISR Cooperative Research Program (CCRP) working draft (1997?) available via WWW at:

Stein, George J.

Information Warfare, Airpower Journal , Spring 1995. Available via WWW at:

Stein, George J.

Information War - Cyberwar - Netwar, Chapter 6 in the Air Chronicles compilation on Battlefield of the Future , March 1996. Available via WWW at:

Stein, George J.

Information Attack: Information Warfare In 2025, research paper presented to 'Air Force 2025', August 1996. Available via WWW at:

Sterling, Bruce

The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier, New York: Bantam Books, 1993.

A journalistic synopsis of law enforcement's campaign against hackers in the late 1980's / early 1990's.


Stevens, Halbert F.

Information Dominance: The New High Ground, Defense Intelligence Journal, Vol. 5 (1996), Spring issue, pp. 43-52.

Stoll, Clifford

The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , New York: Doubleday, 1989.

This unexpected bestseller chronicles Stoll's real-life stalking of an East German hacker infiltrating American computer installations. A very interesting read, and a good introduction to the complexities of dealing with hacker intrusions.


Sullivan, Gen. George R., and Col. James M. Dubik

War in the information age, Military Review, April 1994, pp. 46-62.

Sullivan, Gen. George R., and Col. James M. Dubik

Envisioning Future Warfare. Publication and release scheduled for 2000.


Sun Tzu: The Art of War - A Bibliography

This Web site contains a massive bibliographic listing on the diverse editions of The Art of War and other related literature. Highly recommended for the person seriously exploring this classic work.

Sun Tzu

The Art of War. Translated by S. B. Griffith. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.


The Griffith translation is the most widely-recognized version at this time. It is not available online (yet). The older (and apparently lower quality) Giles 1910 translation can be found on the Internet (see next entry), as can the more recent Cleary translation.

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Sun Tzu

The Art Of War

Translated by Thomas Cleary. Boston: Shambhala Pocket Classics, 1991.


Sun Tzu on the Art of War

Public domain transcription of Giles' (lowly-regarded) 1910 translation. Available via WWW at:

Swett, Charles

Strategic Assessment: The Internet, Asst. for Strategic Assessment Office of the Asst. Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (Policy Planning), 1995. Available via WWW at:

Szafranski, Richard (Col. USAF)

Harnessing Battlefield Technology: Neocortical Warfare: The Acme of Skill, Military Review, November 1994.

Szafranski, Richard

When Waves Collide: Future Conflict, Joint Forces Quarterly, Spring 1995.

Szafranski, Richard (Col.)

A theory of information warfare: Preparing for 2020, Airpower Journal, Vol. IX, no. 1 (Spring 1995), pp. 56-65. Available via WWW at:

One of the better essays from within the military establishment on the prospects for information warfare. It is in this paper that Szafranski makes the very useful distinction between 'warfare' (as any effort directed toward goals in line with one's interests) and 'war' (as the all-out prosecution of warfare by any and all means).

Szafranski, Richard (Col.)

Szanfranski on Ware: The problems with bees and bombs, Airpower Journal, Winter 1995. Available via WWW at:

This is Szafranski's response to Ware's (1995) critique of Warden's (1995) '5-ring' model of the enemy as a system. Although Szafranski respects the depth and detail of Ware's analysis, he appears to defend Warden's model on the basis of it's being a product of experience, regardless of its scholarly merits.

Szafranski, Richard (Col.)

Parallel War and Hyperwar: Is Every Want a Weakness? , Chapter 5 in Air Chronicles compilation on Battlefield of the Future , March 1996. Available via WWW at:

Szafranski, Richard (Col.)

Peer Competitors, the RMA, and New Concepts: Some Questions, Naval War College Review, Spring 1996, pp. 113-119.

Taylor, Philip M.

War and the Media : Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester University Press, 1992.

An account of how the Allies managed their own media as well as that of the Iraqis.


Taylor, Philip M.

Munitions of the Mind : A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Era, Manchester University Press, 1995.


Thomas, Keith

A Revolution in Military Affairs, Research and Analysis, no. 5, March 1996. Available via WWW at:

Thomas, Timothy L.

Russian Views on Information­Based Warfare, Airpower Journal, Special Edition, 1996. Available via WWW at:

This paper is particularly interesting for the comments Thomas collected from Russian military personnel on how they view and conceptualize the RMA and information warfare.

Thompson, Robert, Jr.

Information Warfare: Part 1 DoD DACS Newsletter (now Software Tech News), Spring 1996. Available via WWW at:

Thompson, Robert, Jr.

Information Warfare: Part 2 DoD DACS Newsletter (now Software Tech News), Summer 1996. Available via WWW at:

The two above-cited articles by Thompson are light but informative overviews of the IW situation for an IT-professional audience.

Thrasher, Roger D. (Capt.)

Information Warfare: Implications for Forging the Tools, Monterrey CA: Naval Postgraduate School (Master's thesis). Available via WWW at:

Tillford, Jr., Earl H.

The Revolution in Military Affairs: Prospects and Cautions. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1995.

Toffler, Alvin

The Third Wave, New York: Bantam Books, 1980.

This is the original source for the Tofflers' taxonomy of 'waves' in history, currently transitioning into the 'third wave' characterized by dependence upon information.


Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler

Power Shift, New York: Bantam Books, 1990.

This book continues the explication of the Tofflers' 'wave' framework, with most attention going to the architectonics of implementing information-based economic and political systems.


Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler

War, wealth, and a new era in history, World Monitor, Vol. 4, no. 5 (May 1991), pp. 46-52.

Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler

War and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century, Boston MA: Little, Brown and Co., 1993.

When IW pundits make their obligatory allusions to the Tofflers, this is the book to which they are almost always referring. War and Anti-War is the most focused exposition of how the emerging 'third wave' phenomenon links to military issues.


Toffler, Alvin

The Wired interview, Wired, vol. 1.5 (November 1993), pp. 61 ff.

Text available through HotWired WWW site at:

Tooke, Lamar, and Allen, Ralph

Strategic Intuition and the Art of War, Military Review , Vol. 75, March-April 1995, pp. 10-18.

U.S. Air Force

Information Warfare, Fact Sheet 95-20. Available via WWW at:

U.S. Air Force

Global Engagement: A Vision of the 21st Century Air Force. Policy / strategic vision document available via WWW at:

This documents the USAF vision (plan, whatever....) that supersedes the earlier "Global Reach, Global Power". According to the Introduction, this document:

"... flows from the National Security Strategy and is our continuing commitment to provide America the air and space capabilities required to deter, fight and win. This vision is grounded in the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff concept of how we will fight in the early 21st Century - Joint Vision 2010."

U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB)

New World Vistas: Air and Space Power For The 21st Century

This massive set of documentation represents the SAB's vision of military operations (and the technology requisite to them). Summary Volume documentation available via WWW at:

U.S. Army

Field Manual FM 24-33: Communications Techniques: Electronic Counter-Countermeasures, Washington DC: Department of the Army, July 1990. Accessible via WWW at:

U.S. Army

Field Manual FM 34-1: Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations, Washington DC: Department of the Army, September 1994. Available via WWW at:

U.S. Army

Field Manual FM 100-6: Information Operations, Washington DC: Department of the Army, August 1996. Available via WWW at:

Ullman, Harlan K., and James P. Wade (with L.A. "Bud" Edney, Fred M. Franks, Charles A. Horner, Jonathan T. Howe, and Keith Brendley)

Shock and Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance, Washington DC: National Defense University Press, December 1996. Available via WWW at:

This publication is not about IW per se, but its focus on "dominance" is very relevant to understanding why that term is so prevalent in IW discussions (e.g., "information dominance", "dominant battlespace awareness").

Van Creveld, Martin L.

Technology and War: From 2000 BC to the Present, New York: Free Press, 1989.

Van Creveld, Martin L.

The Transformation of War, New York: Free Press, 1991.

Coming as it does in the wake of his 1989 Technology and War one might suspect this book to be an early discussion of IW. It isn't. The primary focus of this book is 'low-intensity conflict'; hence it is more of a treatise on the socio-political aspects of warfare. Having said that, the book is good on the subject matter it presents. As far as IW is concerned, a solid secondary resource.


Vick, Alan

Book Review: Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic Superhighway by Winn Schwartau, available via WWW at:

Virilio, Paul

Pure War, New York: Semiotext(e), 1983. Paperback reissue by Autonomedia, 1997.

Virilio is often categorized among the post-modernist writers. Unlike others given that designation, he can sustain a clear expository direction. This book is sort of Der Derian with a stronger focus on the media, temporal coercion, and semiotic leverage.


Virilio, Paul

Speed and Information: Cyberspace Alarm!,Le Monde Diplomatique, August 1995.
Original article in French. An English translation is available via WWW at:

Virilio, Paul

The Virilio Reader, (edited by James Der Derian), Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998.

This soon-to-appear compendium of Virilio's key writings will make it easier to access and digest the cyberspace / media points which Virilio is so keen at noting.

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Wallace, Jonathan, and Mark Mangan

Sex, Laws, and Cyberspace : Freedom and Censorship on the Frontiers of the Online Revolution, New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

An exploration of legal and ethical implications of the global expansion of the Internet.


Waller, Douglas

Onward cyber soldiers, TIME, August 21, 1995, pp. 38-46.

Warden, John A. III (Col, USAF)

The enemy as a system, Airpower Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, Spring 1995, pp. 40-55. Available via WWW at:

Although this paper is framed with regard to the air campaign in Operation Desert Storm (which Warden commanded), it opens up broader issues concerning the treatment of adversary forces / nations as coherent systems in and of themselves. This approach entails a reconsideration of what is a 'center of gravity' -- i.e., a critical locus of force projection whose destruction is a key to disrupting / destroying the adversary generally. Although not specifically directed to IW per se, this is a widely-cited article on the prospective impacts of the MTR / RMA. The primary product of this paper is a 5-ring model which Warden proposes as a formal construct for analysis and planning purposes.

NOTE: I strongly recommend you follow up on Warden by reading Ware's critique of the 5-ring model.

Wardynski, E. Casey

The Labor Economics of Information Warfare, Military Review (May-June 1995): 56-61.

Ware, Lewis

Ware on Warden: Some observations of the enemy as a system, Airpower Journal, Winter 1995. Available via WWW at:

This is a thoughtful, detailed critique of Warden's (1995) 5-ring model for an adversary viewed as a system. Ware is skeptical of the status of Warden's construct as a viable 'model' (in the strict sense used by social scientists), and he provides multiple points upon which this criticism is based. This article is a necessary follow-on (but not the final word) to Warden's notion of conceptualizing the adversary as a system.

Watson, Bruce W., George, Bruce, Tsouras, Peter, and B.L. Cyr

Military Lessons of the Gulf War , London: Greenhill Books; 1991.

Wehling, Jason

Netwars and Activists Power on the Internet. WWW page at:

One of the few WWW resources addressing IW from the perspective of non-military operations (in this case -- political activism).

Wehling, Jason

The Third Wave Revolution: Netwars and Activists Power on the Net. WWW page at:

This is apparently a later, follow-on expansion of the above-cited WWW resource. The earlier can be accessed from the later, but not vice versa.

Whitehead, YuLin (Maj., USAF)

Information as a Weapon: Reality versus Promises, Airpower Journal,Vol. XI, No. 3 (Fall 1997), pp. 40-54. Available via WWW at:

A critical examination of the more extreme claims made for IW. If for no other reason, worth reading as a 'devil's advocate' exercise.

Widnall, Sheila E., and Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman

Cornerstones of information warfare, Washington D.C.: Dept. of the Air Force, October 1995.

Text available via WWW at:

Williamson, J.

Winning the Data War, Jane's Defence Weekly, 20 May 1995.

Wilson, Louise

Cyberwar, God And Television: Interview with Paul Virilio, CTHEORY, 1996. Available via WWW at CTHEORY Web site:

Wilson, Michael

Application of Memetics, 1993. Essay available via WWW at:

Wilson, Michael

Memetic Engineering: PsyOps and Viruses for the Wetware, 1993. Essay available via WWW at:

The two above-cited 1993 papers by Wilson comprise an imaginative overview of the relations between IW interests and 'memetics' (the trendy but vaporous field addressing the notion of 'information as virus').

Wilson, Michael

The Precipice Problem: A Guide to the Destabilization of Western Civilization, 1993. Essay available via WWW at:

One of the nicer light summaries of the 'electronic Pearl Harbor' scenario which has prompted much of the IW frenzy.

Wilson, Michael

Hardwar, Softwar, Wetwar: Operational Objectives of Information Warfare, 1995. Essay available via WWW at:

Wilson, Michael

Battle for the Soul of Information Warfare: Pearl Harbor vs. the Hashishim, 1996. Essay available via WWW at:

A thought piece in which Wilson contrasts and examines two distinct styles of IW strategy -- the rapid and all-out attack (a la Pearl Harbor) versus slow and insidious measures (a la the Hashishim). A separate table illustrating the contrasts between the two alternatives can be found at:

Wilson, Michael

The Essence of Warfare: A Return to First Principles, 1996. Essay available via WWW at:

A brief essay on basic characterization of warfare styles. Wilson suggests that through reference to 'dependency infrastructure' (DI), a new (and more useful) taxonomic framework can be discerned.

Wilson, Michael

Infrastructural Warfare Threat Model, 1997. Essay available via WWW at:

An outline of the issues and problems surrounding I2WAR (Wilson's term for 'information and infrastructural warfare').

Wood,Robert J.

Information Engineering: The Foundation of Information Warfare, (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College Research Report, 1995, available from Air University Library, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.

Wresch, William C.

Disconnected : Haves and Have-Nots in the Information Age, Rutgers NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996.

A substantial book outlining the distribution of access to information assets, and the impact the current (im-)balance in said distribution portends for the future.

In the Information Age, information is power. Who produces all that information, how does it move around, who uses it, to what ends, and under what constraints? Who gets that power? And what happens to the people who have no access to it? With vivid anecdotes and data, William Wresch contrasts the opportunities of the information-rich with the limited prospects of the information-poor. Surveying the range of information - personal, public, organizational, commercial - that has become the currency of exchange in today's world, he shows how each represents a form of power. He analyzes the barriers that keep people information-poor: geography, tyranny, illiteracy, psychological blinders, "noise," crime. Technology alone, he demonstrates, is not the answer. Even the technology-rich do not always get access to important information - or recognize its value. Wresch spells out the grim consequences of information inequity for individuals and society. Yet he ends with reasons for optimism and stories of people who are working to pull down the impediments to the flow of information.

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Information Warfare's Professional Reading List
Information Warfare Division
College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education (CADRE)
USAF Air University

The URL below will take you to a central WWW page linking multiple listings of IW and IW-related readings. This site's listings are particularly rich in references to writings published within the USAF community (e.g., theses, monographs) and not commonly cited elsewhere.

USAF Air University Library

  1. Information Warfare Bibliography
    Compiled by Tomma Pastorett

    Although the entry page is annotated "December 1996", the files have been updated as recently as October 1997. This bibliography is a good source of pointers to documentation published within the military community (e.g., military academy theses) and perhaps not known outside that domain.

  2. Information Warfare: SOS Current Military Issues Topic
    Compiled by Diana Simpson
    August 1997

    This is a separate IW bibliography at the same site.

Bibliography of Information Warfare and Infrastructure Vulnerability Documents
Global Technology Research, Inc.

A good (and consistently updated) bibliography on literature relevant to IW, computer / net security, etc. This site (which has recently moved to a new cyber-location) also provides similar bibliographic resources on other related topics (e.g., privacy, cryptography).

Bibliography: Security Related References
George Mason University

A good, in-depth bibliography on computer and related security topics.

The PSYWAR Society Bibliography
Compiled by Rod Oakland

"...of interest to all students and researchers of psychological warfare and, in particular, to those whose primary interest lies in the production, dissemination and effects of aerial leaflets."

Contains a good listing of materials on psychological warfare / operations.


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Copyright © 1998 Randall Whitaker
Except as follows....

This documentation may be freely copied for personal use, distributed, cited, etc., so long as author attribution is included. Inclusion of this document in any persistent product (e.g., rehosting / reposting on WWW) without author permission is expressly prohibited.