sitemap Curriculum Vitae: Dr. Randall D. Whitaker

Randall D. Whitaker, Ph.D.

Senior Human Factors Engineer
Northrop Grumman
Dayton Ohio USA

Human Factors; Cognitive Science; Cognitive Engineering; Participatory Design; Interaction Design; Knowledge Acquisition; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); Cognitive Task Analysis; Enactive Cognitive Science; Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW); Autopoiesis; Organizational (Re-)Design; Group Interfaces; Decision Support; Participatory Business Modeling; User-Centered Design; Work-Centered Design; Information Warfare, Second-Order Cybernetics, Semiotics, Work-Centered Interface Design, Contextual Design.


Since returning to the USA in 1993, I have participated in numerous projects in which I work with end users to set design specifications, produce structured analyses of work processes, and/or design interface products tailored to reflect both the user's key elements of reference and requisite trajectories of (inter-)action within the workspace. Examples include:

  • Establishing recognized value for work-centered analysis and design practices
  • Creating work-centered interface designs for agent-based support systems
  • Conducting cognitive task analyses of mission planning and decision making
  • Developing novel instruments and techniques for participatory knowledge acquisition and cognitive task analysis
  • Specifying and evaluating advanced multi-modal interaction technologies for high-performance team work

From 1995 to 2001, my primary assignments were in (information warfare (IW)) - the area focusing on power projection and manipulation in cyberspace. My IW reseach foci have ranged from theoretical analyses of this emergent venue to cognitive engineering for collaborative information management and manipulation in very high performance real-time operations.

From 1999 onward, my primary assignments have consisted of knowledge acquisition (KA), work-centered analysis, and work-centered design aimed at creating and demonstrating advanced work-centered interface technologies for high performance individual and collaborative decision making operations.


  • Ph.D.

  • M.Sc.

  • B.Sc.

  • B.A.

A broad liberal arts education (concentrating in anthropology and psychology). A technical education in computer science. A capstone doctorate in informatics (the social / technical study of information and its usage).

A unique combination of liberal arts, social science, and computer science allowing me to 'bridge the gap' between information technologies and the people who use them.

Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Informatics
Umeå Universitet  (Sweden)

Dissertation Title:
Venues for Contexture: A Critical Analysis and Enactive Reformulation of Group Decision Support Systems



Master of Science
Computer Science
Department of Computer Science
University of Wisconsin - Madison

My Ph.D. program was transferred to Umeå Universitet in 1988. At that time, all doctoral coursework requirements had been satisfied or exceeded.

A doctoral minor in cognitive psychology was completed effective December 1987.

  • Office of Naval Research Fellow, 1985-1988
  • Outstanding Student Award (Department of Computer Science), 1985
  • University of Wisconsin Fellow, 1988

Bachelor of Science
Computer Science
Department of Computer & Information Sciences
East Tennessee State University
  • B.Sc. 'With High Honors'


Bachelor of Arts
Justin Morrill College
(Liberal Arts)
Justin Morrill College
Michigan State University

Field of Concentration:
Anthropology / Psychology


  • National Merit Scholar
  • MSU Honors College
  • Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society
  • Phi Beta Kappa


  • Sr. Human Factors Engr.
  • Assistant Professor
  • Sr. Systems Analyst
  • Knowledge Engineer

Over 12 years' experience in information technology research and development.

My expertise and performance have been rewarded with regular advancement and merit-based awards.


(Scroll down)

(Predating current career)



The experience most relevant to my present and prospective professional positions

Senior Human Factors Engineer
Senior Human Factors Analyst

Logicon Technical Services, Inc. (LTSI) (1993 - 1999)
Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (1999 and continuing)


I. Technical and Consulting Support to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

Crew System Interface Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB Ohio

June 1993 and continuing

  • Senior researcher under support contract to world's largest human factors laboratory.
  • Provide technical and scholarly consultancy services to USAF and other DOD customers.
Work-Centered Analysis and Design (Multiple Projects)
Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL
January 1999 and continuing

Tasked to research and analyze cognitive and collaborative aspects of decision making processes in specific USAF command center operations. Conducted on-site knowledge acquisition and cognitive work analyses. Devsied new techniques and models for analysis and prescription of designed interventions to improve operational performance. Created multiple innovative interface designs. Characteristics of both practice and products have been compiled and attributed the label work-centered design (WCD) by AFRL.

Specific projects in this series of WCD efforts include:

  • Human Interaction with Software Agents (HISA): 1999 - 2000
  • Integrated Flight Management (IFM): 2000 - 2001
  • Global Air Mobility Advanced Technologies (GAMAT): 2000 - 2003
  • Maintenance Mentor: 2003
  • Work-Centered Interface Design Environment (WIDE): 2004 - 2008
  • Synchronized Distributed Operations (SDO): 2007 and continuing
  • Global Response Synchronization (GRS): 2008 - 2009
  • Cognitive Visualization, Alerting, and Optimization (CVAO): 2009 and continuing

Crew-Aiding and Information Warfare Analysis Laboratory (CIWAL)
Information Analysis and Exploitation Branch, AFRL
April 1995 through March 2001

Tasked to research and analyze cognitive and collaborative aspects of information warfare (IW). Conducted literature searches, compiled reference library materials, and participated in programmatic planning. Generated a cognitive engineering agenda addressing decision making demands in high performance real-time distributed command and control. Generated technical reports, proposals, briefing materials, and attendant graphic materials. Consulted and advised on research methodologies, computer support, distributed interactive simulation (DIS), and human-computer interaction issues relevant to other CIWAL programs. Ongoing activities include research and analysis on:

  • group interface technologies for IW-related command and control
  • cognitive engineering models for IW-oriented systems analyses
  • applications of semiotics and systems theory to IW

Collaborative Systems Technology Laboratory (CSTL)
Collaborative Systems Technology Branch, AFRL
June to December 1997

Tasked to establish a reconfigurable testbed facility for creating and demonstrating advanced collaborative technology concepts in the areas of (e.g.) command and control, remote sensing, intelligence analysis, and information warfare. Developed concept demonstration of distributed group IT applications in the context of battlespace management command and control. Aided in setting up human performance assessment software suite and Java-based interactive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote control simulation suite.

Collaborative Design Technology Laboratory
(CDT Lab)
June 1993 - April 1995

Hired as chief researcher for start-up CSCW program within U.S. Air Force human factors laboratory. Set up and maintained CDT laboratory with reconfigurable collaborative work testbed, Internet links, groupware tools, resident audio / video capacities, and remote video link. Conducted both experimental and observational studies of group design activities. Tested and evaluated group support products. Extended earlier cognitive science / knowledge elicitation work to support collaborative design teams operating in both co-located and distributed work settings. Additional duties include: technical writing, editing, proposal writing, meeting facilitation, generation of graphics and presentation materials, print and electronic literature searches, purchasing, and project planning with USAF and other partners. USAF budget cuts forced closure of CDT Laboratory in spring 1995. Specific CDT project areas included:

Organizational (Re-)Engineering (related terms = TQM, BPR)

Research and applied work toward analyzing organizational structures, defining operational niches, and (re-) designing both organizational and operational features for better performance and service.
Advanced Group Interfaces

Interface devices providing information display, control of the display, control of the software driving the display, and direct data input (via handwriting recognition) at one unified surface.
Observational Studies of Work Teams

Analyses of teams' work activities, interactional patterns, and their usage of available IT resources. Results have informed: (1) work team members about possibilities for process improvement and (2) developers about how best to support such teams.
Experimental and Observational Studies of Collaborative Decision Making

Design, execution, analysis, and publication of team decision making research. Some of these studies employed real world experts in artificial experimental settings, and some involved structured interventions and process analyses of actual team meetings.
Video Teleconferencing

Installed a multi-channel audio / video link between our laboratory and the primary local presentation / meeting room, permitting multimedia support for local meetings as well as testing of the performance and usability characteristics of video conferencing tools.
II. Other Research and Related Work

1997 and continuing

Provide technical expertise on employer contracts and projects outside the scope of the primary efforts outlined above.

Specific task assignments have included:

Cognitive Task Analysis of Mission Planning / Course of Action Analysis

Conducted solo cognitive task analysis of mission planning doctrine, procedures, and practices. Designed and implemented novel methodologies for knowledge acquisition aimed at illuminating the unique characteristics of this decision making process. Conducted interactive exercises and observational studies of simulated mission planning to determine critical processual factors. Produced initial sets of key process data elements, data element interdependencies, relative criticality assessments, and recommendations for clarifying doctrinal and definitional foundations.

Interface Concepts for Agent-Based Intelligent Support Systems

Tasked to develop interface concepts connecting direct manipulation elements at the user / screen side to an arbitrarily large population of intelligent agents performing support tasks in the background. Developed a framework for illustrating relative trade-offs (e.g., between agent autonomy and user control). Devised highly graphic on-screen displays and manipulables with assignments among these elements and their affiliated agents. Mapped relationships linking user acts, events, interface elements, agent actions, and data requirements in the context of a demonstration scenario.

Other Tasks as Required, including:

  • Analysis of program announcements for business opportunities
  • Proposal planning, generation, and presentation
  • Labor and resource estimation for proposed projects
  • Review and analysis of corporate technical efforts and products

(Assistant Professor: Research)
1991 - 1993

Institutionen för Informatik
(Department of Informatics)

Umeå Universitet    (Sweden)

This was a fixed-term research post at a rank corresponding to assistant professor. The duties included:

  • conducting my own research
  • advising students on independent study projects
  • occasional lecturing and teaching
  • dissertation advising; project proposal development
  • responding to academic and government inquiries (on network, data communication, and CSCW issues)
  • occasional consulting work.

Systemvetare (Senior Systems Analyst)
1989 - 1991

Knowledge Engineer
1988 - 1989

(The Swedish Agency for Administrative Development)


Recruited for the agency's knowledge-based systems group. Duties included: conducting research and enquiry into a range of advanced IT (Information Technology) issues of interest to the Swedish government; training; and serving as Swedish representative to international working groups. More specific duties included:

Knowledge Engineer

Worked on design, implementation, and evaluation of knowledge-based systems (KBS) in government pilot projects. Planned successive phases of ongoing projects, reviewed new software tools, and participated in project management functions (e.g., budgeting, reporting). Advised programming staff on technical matters and oversaw ongoing elaboration of user interfaces.

National Representative: ICA Study Group on KBS in Government

Assigned as Swedish government's delegate to working group sponsored by the International Council on Information Technology in Government, researching the potentials and the pitfalls of knowledge based systems (KBS) in government operations. Planned program and drafted material for national representatives' discussions of KBS work / experiences. Served as both contributing author and editor for the group's final report presented (by me) to the ICA Annual International Conference in October 1990 and published by ICA in 1991. Reaction to the report and its presentation was sufficiently positive to motivate multiple requests for related consulting services and invited lectures throughout Europe.

National Project Leader: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

Appointed national CSCW project leader for UtvecklingsRådet (the Development Council) -- a national program for promoting innovative IT applications in the public sector. Managed a working group comprised of representatives from government, business, defense, and labor. Budgeted and managed monies from Arbetsmiljöfonden (The Swedish Work Environment Fund). Conducted CSCW workshops, seminars, and surveys of technology trends, products, and prospective applications. Generated (a) a preliminary study outlining CSCW and its potential for theSwedish public sector, (b) recommendations for a public sector policy on CSCW research and development, and (c) an integrated package of project proposals.

Other Duties

  • Swedish representative to the working group that established the CO-TECH (Collaboration Technology) initiative under the EC's COST program.
  • Evaluator for strategies and products for public access to large databases.
  • Technical writer and editor of scientific articles and other publications.




Scholarly and professional efforts unrelated to a specific job


The Observer Web

The largest Internet site dedicated to autopoiesis and enaction and related work. Established April 1996.

Widely acknowledged as the most comprehensive Webspace on these topics.

The Observer Web is mirrored in Portuguese at UFMG, Brazil. The tutorial has also been translated into Italian, and it appears in its original English form at multiple Websites worldwide.

Second-Order Cybernetics

Reference category on the Open Directory Project.
Beginning in 2001.
The Observer

An Internet journal / newsletter on autopoiesis and enactive cognitive science.
1993 to 1997.


Editorial Advisory Board:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): The Journal of Collaborative Computing, 1994 - 1999.

Organizing Committee:

Biology, Cognition, Language, and Society: An international symposium on autopoiesis, Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 18-21 November, 1997.

Consultant / Invited Lecturer on Topics Including:

  • Technology Support for Group Work.
  • Knowledge Based Systems.
  • Computer Supported Cooperative Work.
  • Groupware.
  • Knowledge Based Systems in Government Administration.
  • Scandinavian Participatory Design.
  • Programmatic Concerns in Human-Computer Interaction Research: A Military Perspective.
  • Change Agency in Military Research Organizations.
  • Group Decision Support for Change Agents in Large Organizations.
  • Internet as a Medium for Business Development.
  • Applying Self-Organization in Enterprise (Re-)Engineering.
  • Applications of Autopoietic Theory

Invited Contributor:

Information Warfare

Article in the Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications, Academic Press, forthcoming (Fall 2002).


Memberships / Affiliations:



My work history prior to the current career in cognitive and information technology research and development.

Claims Representative

Social Security Administration

Public contact representative for SSA. Adjudicated claims for a variety of benefits at both the initial and appeal stages. Conducted trips to remote service sites and claimants' homes. Provided liaison services and referrals to other assistance agencies. Responsible for an SSI client population of approximately 3000 and annual SSI payments totalling between $4.5 million and $5 million. Received employee achievement awards September 1982 and December 1984. Maintained full range of responsibilities while pursuing BSc degree in computer sciences (1981 through 1985). Last summary performance appraisal (October 1984) carried an "Excellent" rating. Left in August 1985 to attend graduate school.

Specialized duties included training, debt management, fraud investigation, stress management training, and computerization issues.

Draftsman / Chief Draftsman
Bristol Metals, Inc. (Synalloy Corp.)
1973 - 1977

Reviewed incoming drawings and plans from customers. Produced preliminary design drawings for cost estimation and feasibility evaluation as well as final detail drawings for use by the fabrication shop. Managed work assignments, training, and quality oversight for up to four draftsmen in addition to myself. Received incoming jobs and allocated them to the draftsmen. Reviewed specifications and material requirements. Checked others' drawings for adequacy and accuracy. Served as reference person for questions from the fabrication shop.

Professional Musician (self-employed)
1966 - 1980

Graphic Illustrator (self-employed)
1973 - 1978

Television Cameraman (public access channel)
1976 - 1977

1971 - 1973


SKILLS   A summary of the skill sets learned and developed over the years.
Communication / Presentation Skills:

  • Excellent writing, editing, reviewing, graphics, and presentation skills.
  • Over ten years' experience as a consulting technical writer, editor, facilitator, and presenter.
  • Substantial experience in generating planning and proposal documentation.
  • Extensive experience in diverse communications / presentation media including:

    • audio
    • video
    • electronic / printed text
    • hypertext / HTML
    • multimedia


Team / Project Skills:

  • A consistently effective collaborator in teams ranging from 3 to over 40 members.
  • Extensive experience with cross-organizational and international work groups involving public and private sectors.
  • Experience in project and project group planning, budgeting, and management.
  • Extensive experience in proposal generation and funding solicitation.



  • Over ten years' experience and established presence in the global networks.
  • Founder / editor of Internet newsletter / journal.
  • Author of numerous WWW pages


Facilitation Tools:

Flowcharting, concept mapping, semantic modelling, logic modelling, ethnography, qualitative research, conversational analysis, IDEF, storyboarding, and multiple original techniques developed over the years.




Östberg, O., Whitaker, R., and Amick, B. (1988).
The Automated Expert: Technical, Human, and Organizational Considerations in Expert Systems Applications. Stockholm: Via Teldok report 12.
Whitaker, R., O. Östberg, O., and Amick, B. (1988).
Kultur, Språk och Artificiell Intelligens (Culture, Language, and Artificial Intelligence): Report on the International Conference. Stockholm: Teldok, 1988 (in Swedish).
Whitaker, R., and Östberg, O. (1988, July).
Channeling knowledge: Expert systems as communications media.
AI & Society, 2, (3), 197-208.
Whitaker, R., Östberg, O., and Essler, U. (1989, September).
Communications and coordination of concerted activity. Paper presented at the FRIEND 21 International Symposium/Workshop On Next Generation Human Interface Technologies, Tokyo/Hakone, Japan, September 5-8, 1989.
Whitaker, R., Östberg, O., and Essler, U. (1989, December).
Communications and coordination of concerted activity. Human Interface News and Report, 4 (4), 325-338.
Whitaker, R. and Essler, U. (1990).
Teknikstöd för Grupparbete (Technology Support for Groupwork). Stockholm: UtvecklingsRådet (The Development Council) (in Swedish).
Whitaker, R., Essler, U. and Östberg, O. (1991, December).
Participatory Business Modeling. Luleå (Sweden): Tekniska Högskolan i Luleå, TULEA Report 1991:31.
Whitaker, R. (1992, March).
Site report on University of Michigan and EDS Capture Lab. in Docherty, P. (ed.), CSCW -- A Promise Soon to be Realized?, Stockholm: Teldok report 71, 66-78.
Whitaker, R. (1992, March).
Personal reflections on the 1991 Teldok "Groupware" study tour. in Docherty, P. (ed.), CSCW -- A Promise Soon to be Realized?, Stockholm: Teldok report 71, 126-131.
Whitaker, R. (1992, December).
Venues for Contexture: A Critical Analysis and Enactive Reformulation of Group Decision Support Systems. Umeå (Sweden): Umeå University Dept. of Informatics research report UMADP- RRIPCS 15.92 (doctoral dissertation).
Whitaker, R., and Östberg, O. (1992).
Expert systems: Channels for dialogue. in Göranzen, B., and Florin, M. (eds.), Skill and Education: Reflection and Experience, London: Springer-Verlag, 107-119.
Docherty, P., and Whitaker, R. (1992).
Introduction to groupware. in Docherty, P. (ed.), CSCW -- A Promise Soon to be Realized?, Stockholm: Teldok report 71, 1-10.
Carmel, E., Whitaker, R., and George, J. (1992, November).
Participatory design versus joint application design: Transatlantic differences in systems development. Paper presented at the Participatory Design Conference, Cambridge MA.
Carmel, E., Whitaker, R., and George, J. (1993).
PD and Joint Application Design: A transatlantic comparison. Communications of the ACM, 36 (4), 40-48.
Whitaker, R. (1993).
Interactional models for collective support systems: An application of autopoietic theory.
in Glanville, R., and de Zeeuw, G. (eds.), Interactive Interfaces and Human Networks, Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers, 119-135.
Whitaker, R. (1993).
Topical Index: Autopoiesis and Cognition (Maturana & Varela, 1980). Available via WWW at:

Whitaker, R. (1994, March).
Autopoiesis and social systems I.
The Observer, issue 9.
Whitaker, R. (1994, June).
GDSS' formative fundaments: An interpretive analysis. Computer Supported Cooperative Work: An International Journal, 2, 239-260.
Brown, C., Selvaraj, J., Zaff, B., McNeese, M., and Whitaker, R. (1994).
An integrative bargaining paradigm for investigating multidisciplinary design tradeoffs. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, 2, 1028 - 1032.
Citera, M., McNeese, M., Brown, C., Selvaraj, J., Zaff, B., and Whitaker, R. (1995).
Fitting information systems to collaborating design teams. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 46 (7), 551-559.
Whitaker, R. (1995, April).
Autopoiesis and social systems II.
The Observer, issue 10
Whitaker, R., Longinow, N., and McNeese, M. (1995, April).
Group Interfaces: A Profile and a Prototype. Dayton OH: USAF Armstrong Laboratory Technical Report AL/CF-TR-1995-0069.
Whitaker, R., Selvaraj, J., Brown, C., and McNeese, M. (1995, April).
Collaborative Design Technology: Tools and Techniques for Improving Collaborative Design. Dayton OH: USAF Armstrong Laboratory Technical Report AL/CF-TR-1995-0086.
Brown, C., Whitaker, R., Selvaraj, J., and McNeese, M. (1995, April).
The Development of TRACE: An Integrative Bargaining Paradigm for Investigating Multidisciplinary Design Tradeoffs. Dayton OH: USAF Armstrong Laboratory Technical Report AL/CF-TR-1995-0073.
Whitaker, R. (1995, September).
(Re-)Design of self-organizing enterprises. Paper presented at the workshop on "Groupware for Self-Organizing Units - The Autopoietic Turn in Organization Science and its Relevance for Groupware", ECSCW'95 (Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work), Stockholm.
Whitaker, R. (1995, December).
Self-Organization, Autopoiesis, and Enterprises. ACM SIGOIS Illuminations, originally available via WWW at:

This ACM SIGOIS website no longer exists. An archive edition of the complete documentation set can now be accessed at:

McNeese, M., Zaff, B., Citera, M., Brown, C., and Whitaker, R. (1995).
AKADAM: Eliciting User Knowledge to Support Participatory Ergonomics. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 15 (5), 345-364.
Whitaker, R. (1996, April).
Nichepicking: A tool for (re-)designing self-organizing enterprises. ACM SIGOIS Bulletin, 17 (1), 21-22.
Whitaker, R. (1996, August).
Managing context in enterprise knowledge processes. European Management Journal, 14: 4 (August 1996), Special Issue on 'The Epistemological Challenge', 399-406.
Whitaker, R., and Kuperman, G. (1996, October).
Cognitive Engineering for Information Dominance: A Human Factors Perspective. Dayton OH: USAF Armstrong Laboratory Technical Report AL/CF-TR-1996-0159, October 1996.
Whitaker, R. (1997, April).
Informationskrigsföring -- ett växande hot (Information warfare -- a growing threat). Öppna System, (Stockholm: Statskontoret), nr. 1:1997, 18-19. (in Swedish: Translated by A.-M. E. Löwinder)
Whitaker, R. (1997, November).
Exploring and employing autopoietic theory: Issues and tips. Paper presented for the opening plenary session in Biology, Cognition, Language, and Society: An international symposium on autopoiesis. Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 18 November 1997.
Whitaker, R. (1997, November).
Is that a hole in your parentheses, or are you wholly parenthetical? Keynote paper on cognition, presented at Biology, Cognition, Language, and Society: An international symposium on autopoiesis. Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 18 November 1997.
Whitaker, R. (1998).
Encyclopaedia Autopoietica. A book-length compendium of terminology and concepts drawn from three decades of literature on autopoiesis / biology of cognition (the theories of Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela). Available via WWW:

Young, M., Eggleston, R., and Whitaker, R. (2000).
Direct manipulation interface techniques for interaction with software agents. Usability of Information in Battle Management Operations (papers presented at the RTO Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) Symposium held in Oslo, Norway, 10-13 April 2000), RTO Meeting Proceedings 57, Neuilly-Sur-Seine Cedex France: NATO Research and Technology Organization, 19-1 - 19-10. Available online at:

Eggleston, R., Young, M., and Whitaker, R. (2000).
Work-Centered Support System Technology: A new interface client technology for the battlespace infosphere. Proceedings of the 51st National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (IEEE 00CH37093).
Kuperman G., Whitaker, R., and Brown, S. (2000, October).
'Cyber Warrior': Information Superiority through Advanced Multi-sensory Command and Control Technologies: Supporting Information Operations Watch Center Crews through Human-centered Technology
Proceedings of the 51st National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (IEEE 00CH37093), 263-271.
Mulvehill, A., and Whitaker, R. (2000, November).
Human Interaction with Software Agents (HISA)
Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-2007, November 2000. Available online at:

Whitaker, R. (2001).
Information Warfare, Languaging, and Second-Order Cybernetics. Paper presented at the 2001 American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) Conference, Vancouver, May 2001. Available online at:

Essler, U., and Whitaker, R. (2001)
Re-Thinking eCommerce business modeling in terms of interactivity. Electronic Markets: The International Journal of Electronic Commerce & Business Media, Vol. 11, no. 1, 10-16.
Kuperman, G., Whitaker, R., and Brown, S. (2001)
Information superiority through advanced multi-sensory command and control technologies
U. S. Air Force Tech Horizons, March 2001.
Whitaker, R., and Essler, U. (2001).
Interactivity in electronic commerce: Shifting the focus of business modeling. Paper presented at the 2001 American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) Conference, Vancouver, May 2001. Available online at:

Whitaker, R., and Brown, S. (2001, August).
Addressing Information Operations Research from a Cognitive Engineering Perspective
Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2001-0163, August 2001.
Eggleston, R., and Whitaker, R. (2002).
Work-Centered Support System Design: Using Frames to Reduce Work Complexity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting (Baltimore MD: Sept. 30 - Oct. 4 2002), Santa Monica CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 265 - 269. Available online at:

Essler, U., and Whitaker, R. (2002)
Mobile Internet: A case for effortless fashionability. Paper presented at the Tokyo Mobile Roundtable, Tokyo, 29-31 May 2002.
Scott, R., Deutsch, S., Kazmierczak, T., Kuper, S., Roth, E., Malchiodi, E., Eggleston, R., and Whitaker, R.(2002).
Using software agents in a Work Centered Support System for weather forecasting and monitoring. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting (Baltimore MD: Sept. 30 - Oct. 4 2002), Santa Monica CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Whitaker, R. (2003).
Information warfare, in Johnston, D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications, Volume 2, San Diego: Academic Press, 2003, 419 - 427.
Eggleston, R., and Whitaker, R. (2004, January).
A Net Centric Collaborative Support System Concept: A Preliminary Investigation. Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2003-0102, January 2004. Available online at:

Kuper, S., Scott, R., Kazmierczak, T., Roth, E., and Whitaker, R. (2004, May).
Global Air Mobility Advanced Technologies (GAMAT) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Phase II Research and Development
Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2005-0023, May 2004. Available online at:

Eggleston, R. G., Roth, E., Whitaker, R., and Scott, R. (2005).
Conveying work-centered design specifications to the software designer: A retrospective case analysis. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting. (pp.332-336). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Scott, R., Roth, E. M., Deutsch, S. E., Malchiodi, E., Kazmierczak, T., Eggleston, R. , Kuper, S. R., and Whitaker, R. (2005).
Work-Centered Support Systems: A Human-Centered Approach to Intelligent System Design. IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 73-81.
Whitaker, R., Scott, R., Roth, E., Militello, L., Quill, L., Stilson, M., Wampler, J., Standard, T., Thomas-Meyers, G., and Schmidt, V. (2005, March).
Work-Centered Technology Development (WTD). Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2005-0149, March 2005. Available online at:

Wampler, J., Whitaker, R., Roth, E., Scott, R., Stilson, M. and Thomas-Meyers, G. (2005).
Cognitive Work Aids for C2 Planning: Actionable Information to Support Operational Decision Making. In Proceedings of the 10th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (June, 2005). Available online at:

Thomas-Meyers, G., & Whitaker, R. (2006).
Knowledge glyphs as a tactic for multi-planar visualization of simulation products. Winter Simulation Conference: WSC 06: Proceedings of the 38th Winter Simulation Conference. Monterey, California, pp. 1203 - 1209.ΚΚ
Whitaker, R., and Thomas-Meyers, G. (2006, March).
Knowledge Glyphs: Visualization Theory Development to Support C2 Practice
Dayton OH: USAF Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0050, March 2006. Available online at:

Wampler, J., Roth, E., Whitaker, R., Kendall, C., Stilson, M., Thomas-Meyers, G., and Scott, R. (2006).
Using work-centered specifications to integrate cognitive requirements into software development. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting. (pp.240-244). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Roth, E. M., Stilson, M., Scott, R., Whitaker, R., Kazmierczak, T., Thomas-Meyers, G. and Wampler, J. (2006).
Work-centered design and evaluation of a C2 visualization aid. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting. (pp. 255- 259). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Roth, E M., Scott, R., Whitaker, R., Kazmierczak, T., Forsythe, M., Thomas, G., Stilson, M. and Wampler, J. (2007).
Designing decision support for mission resource retasking. Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, April 23 - 26, 2007, Dayton, Ohio.
Thomas-Meyers, G., & Whitaker, R. (2007).
Apprenticeship in work-centered design: A case study. HSIS 2007: Proceedings of the Human Systems Integration Symposium. American Society of Naval Engineers (ASNE), Annapolis MD, 19 - 21 March.
Whitaker, R. (2007).
Applying Phenomenology and Hermeneutics in IS Design: A Report on Field Experiences. Informing Science Journal, Volume 10, 2007, Monograph Issue on "Use and Redesign in IS: Double Helix Relationships?", pp. 63-96. Available online at:

Whitaker, R. (2007).
Informing design praxis via 2nd-order cybernetics Kybernetes, Volume 36, No. 9/10, 2007 (Special Issue on "Cybernetics and Design"), pp. 1558 - 1569.


Editor / Contributor / Presenter For:

  • Knowledge-Based Systems Technology in Government Administration. London: ICA (International Council on Information Technology in Government), October 1990.

  • The CEC IMPACT-2 Programme -- A Swedish Response. Stockholm: Civildepartementet, June 1991.

  • SOSIP: The Swedish Government Draft OSI Standard. Stockholm: Statskontoret, 1991 / 1992.





Year of Birth: 1951
Citizenship: USA
Languages: English, Swedish
Hobbies: Music, reading, collecting vintage pinback buttons, cycling, hiking
References: Available Upon Request